Unit 2 (z materiałów)

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Question Answer
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arid land or an arid climate is very dry because it has very little rain
Water from the Great Lakes is pumped to arid regions.
wind up
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zakończyć coś [spotkanie]; skończyć gdzieś [w sądzie]
to bring an activity, meeting etc to an end /// informal to be in an unpleasant situation or place after a lot has happened SYN end up
It’s time to wind things up – I have a plane to catch. /// You know you’re going to wind up in court over this.
to impinge on sth
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naruszyć coś [rights]
to have a harmful effect on someone or something
Personal problems experienced by students may impinge on their work.
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(of rock, urine, blood, handwriting) próbka
a small amount or piece that is taken from something, so that it can be tested or examined
a blood specimen
to poach for st
/ poʊtʃ /
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polować nielegalnie na coś
to illegally catch or shoot animals, birds, or fish, especially on private land without permission
Deer have been poached here for years.
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to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller
The elephant population is dwindling.
to procure sth for sb/for oneself
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postarać się o coś dla kogś
to obtain something, especially something that is difficult to get
He was accused of procuring weapons for terrorists
fishing quotas
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limit połowów
an official limit on the number or amount of something that is allowed in a particular period
The government has imposed quotas on the export of timber.
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nałożyć [tax, duty]
to officially say that people must pay a tax or charge
a new tax levied on all electrical goods
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[person, gesture, steps] niepewny
not definite or certain, because you may want to change things
The government is taking tentative steps towards tackling the country’s economic problems.
to be indignant with sb/at, about sth
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być oburzonym na kogoś/coś;
angry and surprised because you feel insulted or unfairly treated
Jess felt faintly indignant at the remark.v
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happy and willing to take risks
However, to many devil-may-care young people London in the blitz was a place of exhilaration and excitement.
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[wound, situation] zaognić się, [feeling] wzmóc się, [rubbish] gnić
if an unpleasant feeling or problem festers, it gets worse because it has not been dealt with /// if a wound festers, it becomes infected /// if rubbish or dirty objects fester, they decay and smell bad
The animal parts were allowed to fester in the hot sun.
to go rancid
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[food, butter] zjęczęć
oily or fatty food that is rancid smells or tastes unpleasant because it is no longer fresh
I was frequently sick through being forced to drink rancid milk that had been left standing in the playground for hours.
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[child] uparty; [mood] kłótliwy
tending to be angry or annoyed and not to obey people
There’s no need to be so bolshie.
to look/be po-faced
poʊ ˈfeɪst
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mieć kwaśną minę
having an unfriendly disapproving expression on your face /// SYN stern (sroga np. twarz)
Jenkins was at his most po-faced here
wind-up [n]
/ˈwaɪnd ʌp/
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podpucha, ściema
informal something that you say or do in order to make someone angry or worried, as a joke
It was a hell of an elaborate plan just for a wind-up.
pipe up
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[person] pisnąć, odezwać się słabym głosem
to suddenly say something, especially when you have been quiet until then
Mum suddenly piped up ‘No!’
cut sb dead
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potraktować jak powietrze [person]
to deliberately ignore someone when you meet them
I saw Ian in town but he cut me dead.
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dirty air or a thick unpleasant mist that smells bad /// an evil influence or feeling that seems to surround a person or placemiasma of
He looked up at me through a miasma of cigarette smoke. /// The miasma of defeat hung over them.
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drakoński, rygorystyczny
very strict and cruel - draconian measures/controls/penalties etc
The measure is not as draconian as it sounds.
to designate sb/sth as sth
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wyznaczyć kogoś na coś / uznać coś za coś
to choose someone or something for a particular job or purpose
The lake was recently designated a conservation area. /// She has been designated to take over the position of treasurer.
on the eve of sth
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w przeddzień czegoś
the night or day before an important day
Another student dies on the eve of term.
creep out
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wymknąć się chyłkiem
To exit slowly and often stealthily
The cat crept out from under the bush to see if the dog was gone.
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[substance, activity] niedozwolony
not allowed by laws or rules, or strongly disapproved of by society
There is a strong tradition of smuggling, illicit goods being brought from nearby Flookburgh on the coast.
police [v]
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pilnować porządku, patrolować /// nadzorować coś
to keep control over a particular area in order to make sure that laws are obeyed and that people and property are protected, using a police or military force
The demonstration was heavily policed.
a raft of something
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masa czegoś
a large number of things
The company has launched a whole raft of new software products.
gall sb [v]
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wkurzyć kogoś
to make someone feel upset and angry because of something that is unfair
It really galled him to see Anita doing so well now.
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nadzorca (budynku)
someone who is in charge of an apartment building and is responsible for making repairs in it
The superintendent had just been fired for personnel improprieties.
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gnomic remarks are short, clever, and difficult to understand
We must assume, of course, that these different aspects of his gnomic philosophy are to be unified into some coherent whole.
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naruszenie (of sth czegoś)
an act of breaking a rule or law (infraction of)
Alleged infractions would be referred to the County Attorney for prosecution.
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[behaviour, nature, act] przestępczy, [child] nieletni
behaving in a way that is illegal or that society does not approve of (delinquent girls/boys/children/teenagers)
He said collection of delinquent payments has increased from $ 8 billion to $ 11 billion under his administration.
trudge through sth
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brnąć przez coś [snow, mud]
to walk with slow heavy steps, especially because you are tired or it is difficult to w
We trudged home through the snow.
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wymachiwać (czymś)
to wave something around in a dangerous or threatening way, especially a weapon
A man leapt out, brandishing a kitchen kn
scribble (over sth)
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nabazgrać (na czymś)
to write something quickly and untidily
I scribbled his phone number in my address book.
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(untrustworthy) [person] podejrzany; (risky) [plan] ryzykowny
seeming to be false, dishonest, or not to be trusted /// involving risk or danger
That company is a bit dodgy financially - ta firma nie jest w najlepszej kondycji finansowej
beyond the pale of sth
/bɪˈjɑːnd ðə peɪl/
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nie do przyjęcia
offensive or unacceptable
His opinions are entirely beyond the pale.
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(wy)ciągnąć coś (z czegoś) [heavy]
to pull something heavy with a continuous steady movement
They used tractor to haul the car out of the river.
hard and fast
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[rule] żelazny; [category, distinction] niezmienny
clear, definite, and always able to be used
It is impossible to give hard-and-fast rules, but here are some points to consider.
the ins and outs of something
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wszystkie szczegóły czegoś
all the facts and details of something
The book guides you through the ins and outs of choosing and growing garden flowers.
the length and breadth of something
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wszerz i wzdłuż (np. zjeździć kraj, okrążyć świat)
in or through every part of a large area
The police searched the length and breadth of the country.
peace and quiet
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święty spokój
tranquillity and freedom from disturbance
It often is used in wishes for this condition, as in All I want is a little peace and quiet.
be somebody's pride and joy
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być dumą i radością kogoś
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małe gospodarstwo
British English a piece of land used for farming, that is smaller than an ordinary farm
He said that there would be preference funding for smallholdings.
(show-jumping) cup
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puchar [w czymś]
a sports competition in which a cup is given as a prize
They’ve won the European Cup twice.
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paść się [zwierzęta]
if an animal grazes, or if you graze it, it eats grass that is growing
Groups of cattle were grazing on the rich grass.
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kroczyć dumnie;
to walk proudly with your head high and your chest pushed forwards, showing that you think you are important
I strutted around Chicago as if I were really somebody.
to wallow in sth
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wylegiwać się w czymś, taplać się w czymś [mud, morass]; pławić się w czymś [luxury, fame]
if an animal or person wallows, it rolls around in mud, water etc for pleasure or to keep cool /// to seem to enjoy being sad etc, especially because you get sympathy from other people – used to show disapproval
If you were fond of hot water, you wallowed in a sunken basin. /// He’d been feeling sorry for himself, wallowing in self-pity.
to wade through the mud/weeds
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brnąć przez błoto/zielsko / przebrnąć przez coś [żmudną pracę]
to walk through water that is not deep /// to read or deal with a lot of boring papers or written work
Each day Parkin wades through lengthy court reports.
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[pain] ostry, [person] wnikliwy, bystry
eeling or noticing something very strongly
Students are becoming acutely aware that they need more than just paper qualifications.
faint [adj]
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lekki, ledwo widoczny
difficult to see, hear, smell etc /// feeling weak and as if you are about to become unconscious because you are very ill, tired, or hungry
The men went away, and we could hear their voices get fainter and fainter.
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dziwaczność /// dziwactwo
the quality of being strange or unfamiliar /// a strange or unusual habit, quality etc
She was well aware of the peculiarity of her own situation. /// Margaret regarded her mother’s peculiarities with a fond tolerance.
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określić z maksymalną dokładnością [problem, causes, time]
to discover or explain exactly the real facts about something or the cause of a problem
It’s difficult to pinpoint the cause of the accident.
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pognać, pomknąć
to move quickly with short steps, especially because you are in a hurry
People were scurrying off (zmykać) to work.
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to be upwind of st
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znajdować się pod wiatr od czegoś
in the opposite direction to the way the wind is blowing
A male moth flies upwind to a scent, and it goes through a very complicated repertoire to do it.
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bez wyrazu
a featureless place has no interesting parts to notice
Out of a starting point in a constant featureless environment, life spontaneously diversified.
a plume of smoke
1 /pluːm/
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smuga dymu
a cloud of smoke, dust etc which rises up into the air
A black plume of smoke rose above the city.
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ubolewać nad (czymś)
to disapprove of something very strongly and criticize it severely, especially publicly
The UN deplored the invasion as a ‘violation of international law’.
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a clever and dishonest way of tricking someone so that you can get an advant
His usual ploy is to pretend he’s ill.
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more than is normal or reasonable
She doesn’t seem unduly concerned about her exams.
(cleaning/heating) apparatus
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sprzęt (czyszczący/grzewczy)
the set of tools and machines that you use for a particular scientific, medical, or technical purpose
Astronauts have special breathing apparatus.
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if glass or water refracts light, the light changes direction when it passes through the glass or water
More light is refracted below the surface, and algae, especially diatoms. rapidly become plentiful.
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przypuszczenie [guess]
when you form ideas or opinions without having very much information to base them on
What she said was pure conjecture.
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a machine, especially one in the shape of a human, that moves without anyone controlling it
consign somebody/something to something
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(get rid of) wyrzucić
to put something somewhere, especially in order to get rid of it
The shoes looked so tatty that I consigned them to the back of the cupboard.
make one's way
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udać się gdzieś, zmierzać
to go towards something, especially when this is difficult or takes a long time
The team slowly made their way back to base.
be under threat of something
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być zagrożonym czymś
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[object] martwy; [nature, world] nieożywiony
not living
How can you get angry with a car? It's an inanimate object!
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niebezpieczny, ryzykowny
very dangerous
Blondin soon became famous as a rope-dancer. Nothing was too perilous for him to attempt.
to take/occupy centre-stage
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znaleźć się/znajdować się w centrum uwagi
if something or someone is centre stage, they have an important position and get a lot of attention
After his father’s death, he was able to rise to power and take centre stage.
have the gall to do something
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mieć czelność coś zrobić
to do something rude and unreasonable that most people would be too embarrassed to dov
He even had the gall to blame Lucy for it.

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