Wstęp do literaturoznawstwa 5

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Question English Answer English
KABUKI Features song and dance Tells about conflict between human passions and moral/religious duties E.g., Tōkaidō Yotsuya Kaidan
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creates contemplative, serene mood religious themes E.g., Matsukaze
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NARRATIVE: an account of actual or imagined events told by a narrator. A narrative is made up of events, the story, and the arrangement of those events, the plot.
TYPES OF NARRATIVE VIEWPOINT 1. First person narration (e.g., J.D. Salinger) 1. Protagonist 2. Secondary character (e.g., A.C. Doyle)
2. Second person narration (e.g., J. McIerney) 3. Third person narration 1. Omniscient narrator (e.g., Arthur C. Clarke) 2. Limited narrator (e.g., L. Carrol)
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4. Intrusive narrator (e.g., Ch. Dickens) 5. Self-effacing narrator (e.g., G. Flaubert) 6. Multiple narrator (e.g., H. James) 7. Reliable narrator 8. Unreliable narrator (e.g., E.A. Poe)
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1. Construction
Stream of consciousness: the 'flow' of impressions, memories, and sense-impressions through the mind by abandoning accepted forms of syntax, punctuation, and logical connection, e.g., Ulysses, James Joyce
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Story within a story (Chinese-box construction), e.g., The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer
2. Time sequence
Flashback: a change in the temporal sequence of the story so that it moves back to show events that took place earlier than those already shown, e.g., Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling
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Flashforward: an interjected scene that temporarily jumps the narrative forward in time; e.g., In Search of Lost Time, Marcel Proust
3. The form
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Epistolary novel: composed of a set of letters, e.g., The Sufferings of Young Werther, Johann Wolfgang Goethe
Pastiche: a text made up of material from other texts, e.g., Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, Tom Stoppard
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Dream vision: the narrator retells his or her dream, e.g., Alice ‘s Adventures in Wonderland, Lewis Carroll
1. Character vs Supernatural/God, e.g., Paradise Lost, John Milton 2. Character vs Destiny, e.g., The Children of Hurin, J.R.R. Tolkien 3. Character vs Nature, e.g., Robinson Crusoe, Daniel Defoe
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4. Character vs Environment/Society, e.g., Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe 5. Character vs Machine, e.g., I, Robot, Isaac Asimov 6. Character vs Character, e.g., Peter Pan and Wendy J.M. Barrie 7. Character vs Self, e.g., The Fall, Albert Camus
Dynamic: changes over time, usually as a result of resolving a central conflict or facing a major crisis.
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Static: does not change over time; his or her personality does not transform or evolve.
Round: has a complex personality; he or she is often portrayed as a conflicted and contradictory person.
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Flat: one kind of personality trait or characteristic.
Hero: displays heroic traits (courage, strength, etc.), e.g., king Arthur
Anti-hero: does not possess typical heroic traits, e.g., Yossarian in Catch 22
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Father figure: displays authority over the protagonist, e.g., Gandalf
Sidekick: a friend/helper of the hero, of significantly smaller part in the story, e.g., Robin in Batman
Femme fatale: temptress; e.g., Lady Macbeth
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Villain: the chief evil character; e.g., the Wolf in Red Riding Hood
Trickster: a rule-breaker, usually comical; e.g., Puss-in-the-Boots
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Underdog: inferior to the rest of the characters, unlikely to succeed; e.g., the Ugly Duckling
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Cliffhanger: a suspenseful or dramatic moment, finishing a section of the story
Fisher King story: the land of the Fisher King not only reflects the kind of rule they impose, but their moral alignment, state of health, and in some cases even their mood. ("The Land and the King are One.")
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Foreshadowing: suggesting, hinting, indicating, or showing what will occur later in a narrative
Red herring: diverting the attention of the reader from the significant clues in the text, esp. in crime fiction
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Epiphany: a revelation of such power and insight that it alters the entire world-view of the character
Motif: a conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula
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Mood: the predominating atmosphere or tone of a literary work
Theme: central idea or statement that unifies and controls an entire literary work
Tone: the means of creating a relationship or conveying an attitude or mood
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Setting: the time and place of action

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