Prodigies & Heros & other Humans

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Who invented penicillin?
His work on wound infection and lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme found in tears and saliva, guaranteed him a place in the history of bacteriology.
On September 3, 1928, shortly after his appointment as professor of bacteriology, he noticed that a culture plate of Staphylococcus aureus, he had been working on, had become contaminated by a fungus.
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(Sir) Edward Fleming (1881-1955)
A fungus mold, later identified as Penicillium notatum (now classified as P. chrysogenum), inhibited the growth of the bacteria.
Who had the second shortest tenure as American President?
On July 2, 1881, after only four months in office, while on his way to a family vacation in New England, he was shot twice in the railroad station in Washington, D.C., by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker with messianic visions.
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James (Abram) Garfield (1831-1881)
James Abram Garfield, 20th president of the United States (March 4–September 19, 1881), who had the second shortest tenure in U.S.
Who found the Rotavirus?
In the years following the Rotavirusdiscovery, it was found that severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection killed as many as 870,000 children every year, more than 90% of which were in the developing world.
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Ruth Bishop (1930 -)
In 1973, Bishop led the team of researchers at the Royal Children’s Hospital in Melbourne that discovered rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and small children around the world.
Ruth Bishop is a largely unsung hero of global health outside of the rotavirus field, receiving little public recognition for her work.
For her entire career, she has focused on messenger RNA
Her work, with her close collaborator, Dr. Drew Weissman of the University of Pennsylvania, laid the foundation for the stunningly successful vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna.
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(Dr.) Katalin Karikó
Dr. Kariko’s struggles to stay afloat in academia have a familiar ring to scientists. She needed grants to pursue ideas that seemed wild and fanciful. She did not get them, even as more mundane research was rewarded.
Who did shoot the first picture?
In 1826 or 1827, he used the Camera Obscura to produce the oldest surviving photograph of a real-world scene
His family declared the date of 1822 as the birth of photography; a plaque in his home bears this date, but unfortunately, there is no physical evidence to substantiate it.
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(Joseph) Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1883)
This arrangement rankled Niépce's son, who claimed Daguerre was reaping all the benefits of his father's work.
While many inventive men had experimented with the photograph, solving the mystery of fixing the camera image had eluded them until the success of Joseph Nicephore Niepce.
American psychologist famous for his work on personality disorders
The MCMI is a psychological assessment tool intended to provide information on personality traits and psychopathology.
In 2008, he was awarded the Gold Medal Award For Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology by the American Psychological Association.
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Theodore Millon (1928 - 2014)
The American Psychological Foundation presents an award named after Millon, known as the "Theodore Millon Award in Personality Psychology," to honor outstanding psychologists engaged in "advancing the science of personality psychology.
Who discovered the first virus?
Дмитрий Иосифович Ивановский
Although he is generally credited as the discoverer of viruses, they were also independently discovered and named by the Dutch botanist M.W. Beijerinck only a few years later.
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Dmitry (Iosifovich) Ivanovsky (1864-1920)
Further researches led Ivanovsky to conclude that the causal agent was an exceedingly small parasitic microorganism that was invisible even under great magnification and that could permeate porcelain filters designed to trap ordinary bacteria.
The earliest indications of the biological nature of viruses came from studies in 1892 by the Russian scientist Dmitry Iosifovich Ivanovsky and in 1898 by the Dutch scientist Martinus W. Beijerinck.
architect of the nuclear age as well as the atomic bomb
He was present at the Trinity test on 16 July 1945, where he used his method to estimate the bomb's yield.
He led the team that designed and built Chicago Pile-1, which went critical on 2 December 1942, demonstrating the first human-created, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
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Enrico Fermi (1901-1954)
On October 12, 1942 the "enemy alian" status was lifted for Italians; Fermi became a citizen of the United States on July 11, 1944.
Fermi left Italy in 1938 to escape new Italian racial laws that affected his Jewish wife, Laura Capon. He emigrated to the United States, where he worked on the Manhattan Project during World War II.
Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who studied the formations of the brain and investigated conditioned reflexes.
Влади́мир Миха́йлович Бе́хтерев
He also described numbness of the spine (Spondylitis ankylosans) and new forms of spondylitis and other diseases.
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Vladimir (Mikhailovich) Bekhterev (1857-1927)
Bekhterev’s most lasting work was his research on brain morphology and his original description of several nervous symptoms and illnesses.
A competitor of Ivan Pavlov, Bekhterev independently developed a theory of conditioned reflexes, studying both inherited and acquired reflexes in the laboratory.
wannabe assassin of President Gerald Ford
When she shot at Ford in San Francisco on Sept. 22, 1975, she became infamous as one of only two women to have attempted to kill a sitting American president. Her attempt came just 17 days after Lynnette "Squeaky" Fromme attempted to kill the president.
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Sara Jane Moore (1930 -)
Sara Jane Moore, who served 32 years in prison for attempting to assassinate former President Gerald Ford in 1975, has been arrested for violating the conditions of her lifetime parole, Fox News has learned.
Who took office after President Nixon had resigned?
In a political scandal independent of the Nixon administration’s wrongdoings in the Watergate affair, vice president Agnew had been forced to resign in disgrace after he was charged with income tax evasion and political corruption.
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Gerald Ford (1913 - 2006)
In September 1974, Ford pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed while in office, explaining that he wanted to end the national divisions created by the Watergate scandal.
Ford, the first president who came to the office through appointment rather than election, had replaced Spiro Agnew as vice president only eight months before.
Winner of the Nobel Prize in physics for the construction of the first TEM
In 1931, he demonstrated that a magnetic coil could act as an electron lens, and used several coils in a series to build the first electron microscope in 1933.
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Ernst (August Friedrich) Ruska (1906 – 1988)
The ER-C is run conjointly by Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and RWTH Aachen University.
The Ernst Ruska-Centre (ER-C) for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons is a national user facility open to universities, research institutions and research laboratories in industry.
Who discovered the DNA?
Due to its occurrence in the cells' nuclei, he termed the novel substance “nuclein”—a term still preserved in today's name deoxyribonucleic acid.
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(Johann) Friedrich Miescher (1844 - 1895)
Miescher raised the idea that the nucleic acids could be involved in heredity, and even posited that there might be something akin to an alphabet that might explain how variation is produced.
In 1869 Swiss chemist Johann Friedrich Miescher extracted a substance containing nitrogen and phosphorus from cell nuclei. The substance was originally called nuclein, but it is now known as deoxyribonucleic acid.
English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite
On the day before she was to unveil the structure of tobacco mosaic virus at an international fair in Brussels, she died of ovarian cancer at the age of 37 in 1958.
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Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920 – 1958)
Watson suggested that Rosalind Franklin would have ideally been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Wilkins but, although there was not yet a rule against posthumous awards, the Nobel Committee generally did not make posthumous nominations.
Who won the marathon in the 1960 Olympics in Rom running barefooted?
Newspapers the next day commented that it had taken an entire Italian army to conquer Ethiopia, but only one Ethiopian soldier to conquer Rome.
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Abebe Bikila
Abebe Bikila was the first black African to win an Olympic medal, and the first man ever to win two Olympic marathons. Known for his grace and stamina, he was considered the most perfect example of a naturally talented distance runner.
Russian-born American chemist and pioneer in the study of nucleic acids
He isolated the nucleotides, the basic building blocks of the nucleic acid molecule, and in 1909 he isolated the five-carbon sugar D-ribose from the ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecule.
While practicing medicine in NewYork, he studied chemistry at Columbia University and ultimately decided to devote his life to chemical research.
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Phoebus (Aaron Theodor) Levene (1869-1940)
Although the importance of the nucleic acids was unrecognized when he began his research, later discoveries showed DNA and RNA to be key elements in the maintenance of life.
In 1929, he discovered 2-deoxyribose, which is part of the DNA molecule. He also determined how the nucleic acid components combine to form the nucleotides and how the nucleotides combine in chains.
Microbe hunter, pioneering virologist, and the 20th century's leading vaccinologist
He was also the first person to combine viral vaccines when he created the MMR vaccine. With one shot, children could be protected against three diseases (measles, mumps, and rubella).
He characterised several viruses and identified changes that could result when a virus mutated. This concept, which he worked out while at the Walter Reed Institute of Army Research, helped prevent a huge pandemic of Hong Kong flu in 1957.
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Maurice Hilleman (1919-2005)
He joined Merck on New Year's Eve, 1957, as director of a new department of virus and cell biology research. Under Hilleman's aegis, by 1984 Merck had garnered 37 product licences, with an additional three vaccines ready for development.
Maurice Hilleman was responsible for developing more than 40 vaccines, including measles, mumps, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, meningitis, pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, and rubella.
President of the National Woman Suffrage Association (1892—1900)
By the 1890s she had largely outlived the abuse and sarcasm that had attended her early efforts, and she emerged as a national heroine.
Her work helped pave the way for the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) to the Constitution, giving women in the U. S the right to vote.
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Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906)
When Congress passed the 14th and 15th amendments which give voting rights to African American men, Anthony and Stanton were angry and opposed the legislation because it did not include the right to vote for women.
In 1872 Susan B. Anthony, a leader in the American women's suffrage movement, cast a ballot in the presidential election, and she was later arrested for voting illegally and convicted in a trial she called “the greatest outrage history ever witnessed.”
Who abolished serfdom in Russia?
Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич
He sought peace, moved away from bellicose France when Napoleon III fell in 1871, and in 1872 joined with Germany and Austria in the League of the Three Emperors that stabilized the European situation.
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Alexander ll (Nikolayevich Romanov)
Alexander pivoted towards foreign policy and sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, fearing the remote colony would fall into British hands if there were another war.
Alexander's most significant reform as emperor was emancipation of Russia's serfs in 1861, for which he is known as Alexander the Liberator (Russian: Алекса́ндр Освободи́тель)
American primatologist and conservationist known for undertaking an extensive study of mountain gorilla groups
She had been plagued by lung problems from an early age and, later in her life, suffered from advanced emphysema brought on by years of heavy cigarette smoking.
On September 24 1967, she founded the Karisoke Research Center, a remote rainforest camp nestled in Ruhengeri province in the saddle of two volcanoes.
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Dian Fossey (1932-1985)
She is generally credited with reversing the downward trend in the mountain gorilla population. Due to poaching, gorilla populations declined from 450 in 1960 to just 250 in 1981. Her war on poaching saw the final confirmed killing of a gorilla in 1983.
Between Fossey's death and the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Karisoke was directed by former students. During the genocide and subsequent period of insecurity, the camp was completely looted and destroyed. Today only remnants are left of her cabin.
Who was the 32nd president of the United States (1933–45)?
He served as the principal architect of the successful effort to rid the world of German National Socialism and Japanese militarism.
The only president elected to the office four times, he led the United States through two of the greatest crises of the 20th century: the Great Depression and World War II.
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Franklin D. (Delano) Roosevelt (1982-1945)
Roosevelt was ably assisted by the popular first lady, Eleanor Roosevelt, who served as her husband’s eyes and ears throughout the nation, embarking on extensive tours and reporting to him on conditions, programs, and public opinion.
From 1933 to 1944 Roosevelt provided a source of hope and security through his “Fireside Chats,” a series of radio broadcasts that were initially meant to gain support for his New Deal policies.
the first female astronomer
She contracted typhus at the age of 10, and the disease stunted her growth; she grew only 4 feet 3 inches (1.3 metres) tall.
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Caroline (Lucretia) Herschel (1750-1848)
Whom married Martin Luther?
She was born in 1499, the daughter of an impoverished nobleman. She outlived her husband by six years. She died on December 20, 1552 in Torgau where she had fled from the plague in Wittenberg.
Luther eventually came to the conclusion that "his marriage would please his father, rile the pope, cause the angels to laugh, and the devils to weep."
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Katherina von Bora
Martin Luther married Katharina on 13 June 1525. They held a wedding breakfast the next morning with a small company. Two weeks later, on June 27, they held a more formal public ceremony.
Martin Luther found peace when he married an ex-nun named Katharine von Bora, whom he had helped to escape from her nunnery in an empty fish barrel and had taken refuge in Wittenberg.
Receiver of the very first Bitcoin transaction sent by Satoshi Nakamoto
He also built the first anonymous remailer, the first proof-of-work based digital cash system, RPOW (Reusable Proofs of Work), and received the very first Bitcoin transaction sent by Satoshi Nakamoto.
He lived in the same town for 10 years that Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto lived in (Temple City, California), adding to speculation that he may have been Bitcoin's creator.
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Hal Finey (1956-2014)
Hal died of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) in 2014 and was cryopreserved by the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.
Inventor of Bitcoin
On his P2P Foundation profile as of 2012, he claimed to be a 37-year-old male who lived in Japan; however, some speculated he was unlikely to be Japanese due to his native-level use of English.
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(Dorian) Satoshi Nakamoto
a billionaire, Jewish, who supports liberal causes and democratic values
Beyond supporting democratic movements from China to South America, in 1991 he founded the Central European University, which was recently pushed out of Budapest in the name of “the fight against liberalism”.
Famously, one of the beneficiaries was his later nemesis, prime minister Viktor Orbán, who in 1989 got a scholarship to study political science at Pembroke College, Oxford.
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George Soros (1930-)
Soros is known as "The Man Who Broke the Bank of England" because of his short sale of US$10 billion worth of pounds sterling, which made him a profit of $1 billion during the 1992 Black Wednesday UK currency crisis.
... disinformation experts agree that today’s “image of George Soros” can be traced to Arthur Finkelstein and George Birnbaum, political advisers to former Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

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