Psych Ch.1

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The first person to distinguish psychology from philosophy or biology
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William Wundt

The belief that we see reality as it really is (objectively and without bias); that the facts are plain for all to see.
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niave realism

Founded by Titchener, division of psychology that seeks to identify all aspects of thinking
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Structuralism

Founded by William James, a division of psychology influenced by Darwin that seeks to uncover the purpose of behavior and thoughts.
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Functionalism

Researched by BF Skinner, Watson, and Pavlov, a faction of psychology that seeks to objectively test the laws of behavior.
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Behaviorism

Founded by Jean Piaget, a class of psychology that factors in a person's conscious thoughts and stimulus as a reason for behavior.
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Cognitivism (cognitive psychology)

An arm of psychology headed by Sigmund Freud that focuses on unconsious thoughts and desires as an explaination for behavior.
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Psychoanalysis

The "devil", unconsious urges and desires
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Id

The consious self, the part of you that weighs decisions, stuck in the middle
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Ego

The "angel", where morals and ideals are stored
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Superego

The tendency to search for or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions, leading to statistical errors.
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Confirmation bias

The tendency to stick to initial beliefs when evidence contradicts them.
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Belief Perseverence

Principal that sometimes the simplest solution is the correct one.
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Occam's Razor

What was Sigmund Freud right about?
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There are unconscious drives that lead to behaviors.

What is the definition of psychology?
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The study of the mind, brain, and behavior

Rungs on a ladder of analysis with lower levels tied most closely to biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences
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levels of analysis

Caused by several factors
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multiply determined

Variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality, and behavior
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Individual differences

explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world
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Scientific theory

Assertion about the world that is not testable
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metaphysical claim

A set of claims that seem scientific but aren't
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pseudoscience

A loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification
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Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis

The tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli
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Patternicity

A theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews
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Terror management theory

An error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other
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Correlation-Causation Fallacy

a mistaken belief, especially one based on unsound argument
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a mistaken belief, especially one based  in English
Fallacy

Capable of being disproved
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Falsifiable

When a study's findings are able to be duplicated ideally by independent investigators
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Replicability

The fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking over time
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Decline effect

Method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences
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Introspection

Principal that organisms that possess adaptations survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms
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Natural Selection

A relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation between brain functioning and thinking
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Cognitive neuroscience

A discipline that applies Darwin's theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior
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Evolutionary psychology

Research examining how we can use basic research to solve real-world problems
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Basic research

Type of psychologist that performs assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders; also does research
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Clinical Psychologist

Type of psychologist that works with people experiencing temporary or relatively self contained problems
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Counseling Psychologist

Type of psychologist that studies how and why people change over time
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Developmental psychologist

Use research methods to study memory, language, thinking and social behaviors of humans
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Experimental psychologist

Examines the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans
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Biological psychologist

works in prisons, jails, etc. to assess and diagnose inmates and assist with their rehabilitation and treatment; others conduct research on eyewitness testimony or jury decision making
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Forensic psychologist

Works in companies and businesses to help select productive employees, evaluate performance, examine the effects of different working and living conditions on behavior
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Industrial-Organizational (aka environmental) psychologists


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