My lesson "C"
My lesson "C"
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Can you sing? I could work for twelve hours a day.
can - could - be able to
Both can and could are followed by an infinitive without to.
Many people here cannot afford telephones. They couldn't sleep. We were not able to give any answers.
The negative form of can is cannot or can't. The negative form of could is could not or couldn't. To form tha negative of be able to you put not or another negative word in front of able.
You can all read and write. The sheep are able to move around in the shed.
ability: the present. shed: alpendre, barracão
You use can or be able to to talk about ability in the present. Be able to is more formal than can.
He could run faster than anyone else. I wasn't able to do these quizzes.
You use could or a past form of be able to to talk about ability in the past.
I will be able to answer that question tomorrow.
ability: the future
You use a future form of be able to to talk about ability in the future.
I can smell gas. I can't see her. I could see a few stars in the sky.
awareness; aware: if you are aware of something, you know about it or realize that it is there
Can and could are used with verbs such as see, hear, and smell to say that someone is or was aware of something.
aware: estar consciente de alguma coisa
You can have anything you want. At last the police officer said I could go home.
Can and could are used to say that someone is or was allowed to do something.
You can't bring children into the restaurant. His mum said he couldn't go to the party.
Cannot or can't and could not or couldn't are used to say that someone is or was allowed to do something.
He really cares about the environment. I don't care what my dad says about it.
If you care about something, you feel that it is important or interesting. You can use care about followed by a noun, or care followed by a clause beginning with a word like what, who or if.
You must learn how to care for children. I'll take care of the children.
care for and take care of
If you care for people or animals, or you take care of them, you look after them.
He picked up his suitcase and carried it into the bedroom.
carry - take
If you carry something to a place, you hold it in your hands and take it there.
She gave me some books to take home. It's his turn to take the children to school.
If you take something to a place, you move it from one place to anither. You can move it with your hands, or in other ways, such as in a car.
The chairman welcomed us and opened the meeting. Andrew Knight, chairman of News International.
chairman - chairwoman - chairperson
The chairman is the person who is in charge of a meeting or an organization.
Elaine Quigley, chairwoman of the institute.
The chairwoman is the woman who is in charge of a meeting or an organization.
She is the chairperson of the planning committee. Please address your remarks to the chair...
chairperson and chair
You can also use chairperson or chair to talk about either a man or a woman who is in charge of a meeting or an organization.
There is a chance that I will have to stay longer. There's no chance of going home.
If it is possible that something will happen, you can say that there is a chance that it will happen or a chance of it happening
We've got a good chance of winning.
If something is likely to happen, you can say that there is a good chance that it will happen.
You will be given the chance to ask questions.
If someone is able to do something at a particular time, you can say that they have the chance to do it.
Many years later he met her by chance at a dinner party.
If something happens by chance, it was not planned.
I couldn't believe my luck. She hugged me and wished me luck. Good luck!
Don't confuse chance and luck. Luck is the good things that happen to you that are not caused by you or by other people.
He worked as a chef in a hotel in Paris.
chef - chief
A chef is a cook in a hotel or restaurant.
the police chief.
The chief of a group or organization is its leader.
fish and chips. a steak and fries.
chips - fries or french fries
In British English, chips are long, thin pieces of potato fried in oil and eaten hot. Americans call these fries or french fries.
a bag of potato chips. a packet of crisps.
crisps - chips or potato chips
In American English, chips or potato chips are very thin slices of potato that have been fried until they are hard and crunchy and are eaten cold. British people call these crisps.
Do you mind if I close the window? He shut the gate.
close -closed - shut: verbs
If you close or shut something such as a door, you move it so that it covers or fills a hole or gap. The past tense form and past participle of shut is shut.
The shop closes on Sundays. What time do the shops shut?
If a shop or business closes or shuts, it s not open and people cannot buy or do things there.
The windows were all shut. The shop was shut all afternoon.
You can use both closed and shut as adjectives. You use shut after the verb be. Don't use it in front of a noun.
The gate was closed. He could hear voices behind the closed door.
When you are talking about doors and windows, you can use closed after be or in front of a noun.
The supermarket was closed when you got there.
When you are talking about shops and businesses, you put closed after be.
Our house is close to the sea.
Don't confuse the verb close with the adjective close - if something is close to something else, it is near to it.
I took off all my clothes.
clothes - clothing - cloth
Clothes are things you wear, such as shirts, trousers, dresses, and coats.
There is no singular form of clothes.
You can say a piece of clothing, but in conversation, you usually name the piece of clothing you are talking about.
You must wear protective clothing.
Clothing is an uncountable noun. You use it to talk about particular types of clothes, for example winter clothing or warm clothing.
strips of cotton cloth.
Cloth is an uncountable noun, and means fabric such as wool or cotton which is used for making clothes.
She had green eyes.
When you want to describe the colour of something, you usually use a colour adjective such as red or green rather than the word colour.
What colour was the bird?
However you use the word colour when you are asking about the colour of something.
The paint was the colour of grass.
In sentences like these you use be, not have.
You can also say that one thing is the colour of another thing.
The American spelling of colour is color.
Mark came to stay with us. Please come and see me in my office.
You use come to talk about movement towards a place.
During the summer we went to France for a week.
come or go?
When you are talking about movement away from the place where you are, you use go, not come.
Will you come with me to the party?
If you invite someone to accompany you somewhere, you usually use come, not go.
Come and see me next time you're in Mew York.
You use come and with another verb to say that someone visits you or moves towards you in order to do something.
Where do you come from? - Australia. I come from Zambia.
If you come from a place, you were born there, or it is your home.
Don't use a progressive form in sentences like these.
People started making rude comments.
A comment is something you say that expresses your opinion of something.
We listened to the football commentary on the radio.
A commentary is a description of an event that is broadcast on radio or television while the event is taking place.
Mr Cook has not commented on these reports. I was wondering whether you had any comments.
If you comment on a situation, or make a comment about it, you give your opinion on it.
He mentioned that he might go to New York.
If you mention something, you say it, but only briefly, especially when you have not talked about it before.
Visitors remark on how well the children look. They repeated Janet's remarks about Adrienne.
If you remark on something, or make a remark about it, you say what you think or what you have noticed, often in a casual way.
Doctors have compared the two treatments.
When you compare things, you consider how they are different and how they are similar.
studies comparing Russian children with those in Britain. I haven't got anything to compare it to.
You can use either with or to after compare.
a computer virus can be compared to a biological virus.
be compared to
If someone or something is compared to or can be compared to another person or thing, people say that they are similar.
Concentrate on your driving.
If you concentrate on something, you give it all your attention.
They are concentrating on saving lives.
If you say that someone is concentrating on something or is concentrating on doing something, you mean that they are spending most of their time or energy on it.
Don't say that someone is concentrated on something. focused. relating to a person's interest or attention.
He had no time to consider the matter.
If you consider something, you think about it carefully.
They were considering opening an office in Paris.
You can say that someone is considering doing something in the future,
Don't use a to-infinitive after consider.
The committee consists of scientists and engineers.
consist of - be made up of
If you say that one thing consists of other things, you mean that those things combine to form it. For example, if a book consists of twelve chapters, there are twelve chapters in the book.
All substances are made up of molecules.
Don't use progressive forms of these verbs.
You can also say that something is made up of other things. This has the same meaning as consist of.
constant - continual - continuous
Constant, continual and continuous have slightly different meanings.
a constant flow of traffic. The breeze was constant, but not too strong.
You use constant to talk about things that are always there.
means pain that does not stop.
The exercise should be one continuous movement. The noise was almost continuous.
There was continuous rain.
You use continuous to talk about things that happen without stopping.
you mean that it did not stop raining.
There was continual rain.
You use continual to talk about things that happen often over a period of time
He was tired of her continual complaining.
However, continual can only be used in front of a noun. Don't use it after a verb.
You can put constant and continuous in front of a noun or after a verb.
She searched through the contents of her handbag.
content: used as a plural noun
The contents of something such as a box or a room are the things inside it.
When content is a noun, it is stressed on the first syllable.
He knew by heart the contents of the note.
The contents of something such as a document are the things written in it.
I was shocked by the content of some of the speeches. The website content includes a weekly newsletter.
content used as an uncountable noun
The content of something such as a speech, piece of writing, website, or television programme is the information it gives, or the ideas or opinions expressed in it.
He was content to let her do all the talking. He was content with his morning's work.
content used as an adjective
If you are content to do something, you are happy to do it. If you are content with something, you are happy and satisfied with it.
content: When it is an adjective, it is pronounced with the stress on the second syllable.
He says his daughter is quite content.
If you are content, you are happy and satisfied. When content has this meaning, it is not used in front of a noun.
You'll hate it. - On the contrary. I' enjoy it.
on the contrary
You say on the contrary when you are saying that the opposite of what has just been said is true.
It's a difficult job, But, on the other hand, the salary is good.
on the other hand
Don't say on the contrary when you are going to mention something that gives a different opinion from something you have just said.
I don't like living in the centre of the town. On the other hand, it's useful when you want to buy something.
control can be a verb or a noun
The Australian government controlled the island.
control used as a verb
If someone controls something such as a country or an organization, they have the power to take all the important decisions about it.
Mr Ronson gave up control of the company. The government does not yet have control over the area.
control used as a noun
Control is also used as a noun. You say that someone has control of a country or organization, or control over it.
She went through passport control into the department lounge.
Control is used in the names of places where your documents and luggage are officially checked, especially when you are travelling between countries.
My luggage was checked or My luggage was inspected.
Don't use control as a verb to mean check.
It took them a few days to convince me that it was possible.
convince - persuade
If you convince someone of something, you make them believe it is true.
Marsha was trying to persuade Katrina to change her mind.
If you persuade someone to do something, you make them do it by talking to them.
He cooked a delicious meal. I need to cook the pasta.
If you cook something, you prepare it and heat it, for example in an oven or saucepan. Cook is only used to talk about food, not drinks.
I made breakfast for everyone. I'll make you a coffee.
If you make a meal or a drink, you combine foods or drinks together to produce something different. You can make a meal without heating anything.
Martin fixed some lunch for us. Lucinda fixed herself a drink.
In American English, you can use fix instead of make.
My husband baked a cake for my birthday. I roasted the chicken.
When you bake or roast something, you cook it in an oven without liquid. You bake bread and cakes, but you roast meat.
I'll boil the potatoes.
When you boil something, you cook it in boiling water.
Fry the onions until they are brown.
When you fry something, you cook it in hot fat or oil.
The food was warming in a saucepan on the cooker.
A cooker is a large piece of equipment in a kitchen that you use for cooking food.
Agnes is an excellent cook.
A person who cooks a meal is called a cook, not a cooker.
a television set in the corner of the room.
A corner is a place where two sides or edges of something meet. You usually say that something is in a corner.
There is a post box on the corner.
The place where two streets meet is also a corner. You use on when you are talking about the corner of a street.
She'd never lived in an English-speaking country.
A country is a n area of land with its own government.
We live in the country.
You call land that is away from towns and cities the country.
A crime has been committed.
A crime is an illegal action. You say that someone commits a crime.
Mrs Adams is one of our regular customers.
customer - client
A costumer is someone who buys something from a shop or a website.
A lawyer and his client were sitting at the next table.
A client is a person who pays someone for a service.
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