lesson 2 SIMPLE PRESENT

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Question English
Answer English

SIMPLE PRESENT
You need...
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SUBJECT + VERB
You need a boyfriend that says to you "I love you, baby"

The SIMPLE PRESENT is used to make statements about the present time, for permanent facts that are always true.
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The night is dark.

The SIMPLE PRESENT is used to make statements about the present time, for present facts that are true now.
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I feel happy.

The SIMPLE PRESENT is used to make statements about the present time, for habitual actions.
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I get up late.

Examples
I do my best. Period. I look great. I know. I speak Spanish.
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I take care of my mom. I write mystery novels. I believe.
I like to like. I work 24/7. I cook Russian food.

The SIMPLE PRESENT is also used to talk about scheduled events in the near future, for example, when talking about events that happen at a set of time like timetables, meetings or programs.
The next train arrives at 1 a.m... Enjoy me while you wait! (to get pleasure from something)
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The train arrives at 1 a.m. The meeting begins after lunch. The show ends in five minutes.

QUESTION: To make a Simple Present question use: DO/DOES + SUBJECT + INFINITIVE without "to"
Do you read?
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Do you work? Do you like music? Do you go to the movies? Do you like travelling?
No, I don't.

NEGATIVE To take a Simple Present negative use:
I don't like... I don't like people.
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SUBJECT + DON'T/DOESN'T + INFINITIVE without to
DO + NOT=DON'T; DOES + NOT= DOESN'T

The 3rd person singular in Simple Present
I look great, you look great, We look great, you look great, they look great.
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In Simple Present, add S to the verb in the third person singular (he, she, it)
He looks great, She looks great, It looks great.

for verbs ending in O,
do
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add ES
does

for verbs ending in S,
kiss
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add ES
kisses

for verbs ending in X,
mix
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add ES
mixes

for verbs ending in CH.
catch
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add ES
catches

for verbs ending in SH,
push
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add ES
pushes

for verbs ending in Y after a consonant
cry
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change Y to IES
cries

Use "does" for QUESTIONS
Does he stink? Does she stink? Does it stink?
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and "doesn't to form NEGATIVES
He doesn't snore. She doesn't snore. It doesn't snore.

PLURALS When a countable noun refers to two or more things,
computer, phantom, umbrella, house, book, hat
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use the plural form of the noun.
Plurals are generally created by ADDING S to the noun. computers, phantoms, umbrellas, houses, books, hats.

With some nouns it is a little different.
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These are the most COMMON EXCEPTIONS.

FOR NOUNS ENDING IN: O, S, X, ZZ, CH, SH
potato, kiss, box, buzz, witch, dish
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add ES
potatoes, kisses, boxes, buzzes, witches, dishes

For a noun ending in Z,
quiz
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add ZES.
quizzes

And for some nouns ending in O,
photo, piano
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add S
photos, pianos

CONSONANT + Y
city
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change Y to IES
cities

MOST NOUNS ENDING IN F OR FE
wolf
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change to VES
wolves

MOST NOUNS ENDING IN IS
crisis
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change to ES
crises

IRREGULAR PLURALS
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IRREGULAR NOUNS don't follow the previous rules. These are the most common. man-men; woman-women; child-children; foot-feet; sheep-sheep; tooth-teeth; person-people; mouse-mice

A COUNTABLE NOUN can have a number in front of it and can be plural:
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3 years, 2 suitcases, 1 rabbit.

An UNCOUNTABLE NOUN cannot have a number in front of it and there is no plural form:
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air, water, oil, hope

ARTICLES WITH COUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
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A/AN, THE

Use a COUNTABLE NOUN: with A/AN the first time you use that noun
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There is a naked man in the garden.

A- when the noun starts with consonant; AN - when the noun starts with vowel
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a friend; an egg

Use a COUNTABLE NOUN: with THE The subsequent times you use the noun, or when the listener already knows what you are referring to.
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The naked man is dancing.

Use a PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUN with NO ARTICLE when you speak in general.
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I don't like children.

Use an UNCOUNTABLE NOUN with NO ARTICLE if you mean all or any of that thing.
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I don't need help.

Use an UNCOUNTABLE NOUN with THE when you are talking about a particular example.
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Thanks for the help you didn't give me before.

How many

Use "how much"
How much is it?
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to ask about something that is UNCOUNTABLE

Use "how many"
How many would you like?
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to ask about something that is COUNTABLE
1 orange, 2 oranges, 3 oranges

SOME and ANY
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are used when the speaker doesn't specify a number or an exact amount.

SOME is used in POSITIVE SENTENCES with uncountable nouns
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You have some butter on your nose

SOME is used in POSITIVE SENTENCES with plural countable nouns
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You have some boogers in your nose.
Booger or Boogers may refer to: Mucus or snot, always dried nasal mucus (U.S. colloquial)

ANY is used in QUESTIONS and NEGATIVE SENTENCES with uncountable nouns:
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I don't want any risk in my life.

ANY is used in QUESTIONS and NEGATIVE SENTENCES with plural countable nouns:
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Do you have any friends?

Use SOME in questions when offering/requesting:
Two common exceptions to these rules: 1
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Would you like some more tea, darling?

Use ANY in positive sentences when it means "it doesn't matter which":
Two common exceptions to these rules: 2
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You can call me at any time.

What's that noise? Is that a rat? Are there any rats?
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Yes... There are some rats. Well, a lot of rats!

Are they close?
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Yes, very close! And they are big! Some of them look hungry... with big teeth.

Are there any subway employees around?
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No, there aren't any subway employees!

THERE IS THERE ARE
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"There is" and "there are" are used to say that something exists or doesn't exist.

THERE IS is used for a singular subject.
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there is a nice rink. There is no King Kong. Yes, there is a guy skating on an ice rink and there is a girl skating on a building? No, there isn't.

THERE ARE is used for a plural subject.
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There are a lot of buildings. There are no trees. Are there any school buses? Yes, there are. Are there people skating?

Demonstratives
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THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE

Demonstratives are used to show the distance from the speaker.
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The distance can be psychological or physical.

for singular nouns that are near.

for plural nouns that are near.

for singular nouns that are far.

for plural nouns that are far.

Demonstratives can be: PRONOUNS
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This is the dead tree. I don't like that. These are mine. Those are my neighbors.

Demonstratives can be: ADJECTIVES
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This tree is dead. I came in that car. I left these garbage bags. Those guys are unpleasant.

POSSESSIVES PRONOUNS and ADJECTIVES
SUBJECT PRONOUN: I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They.
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POSSESSIVE PRONOUN: MINE, YOURS, HIS, HERS, ITS, OURS, YOURS, THEIRS
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE: MY, YOUR, HIS, HER, ITS, OUR, YOUR, THEIR

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS are used instead of a noun.
She is mine. Vivian's husband is every woman's dream husband.
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Peggy's dress is pink. Mine is black.

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES are usually to describe a noun, and, like other adjectives, come before the noun.
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My dress is nicer than her dress.

Use a SINGULAR NOUN with 'S to show possession:
'S + NOUNS
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I don't like my sister's boy friend.

Use S' with a REGULAR PLURAL NOUN.
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I love ladies' shoes.

Use 'S with an IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUN:
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I don't care about men's shoes.

With NAMES:
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Kate's dog barks every night. Do you have Susan's phone number?

When a name ends in S, treat it like any other singular noun and add 'S
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Don't eat Charles's breakfast.


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