6.2 A GLOBAL LANGUAGE? CONCESSION CLAUSES

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Question English
Answer English

Read the predictions about the future of English.
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Underline the correct alternatives.

(?) English is still the dominant language on the internet, other languages (like Mandarin, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese) will become increasingly important.
While/Despite
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While English is still the dominant language on the internet, other languages (like Mandarin, Russian, Spanish and Portuguese) will become increasingly important.
While

(?) 27.3 percent of internet users are English speakers, this number is closely followed by Chinese speakers (22.6 percent).
In spite of/Although
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Although 27.3 percent of internet users are English speakers, this number is closely followed by Chinese speakers (22.6 percent).
Although

(?) we may find it hard to believe, the global language of the future might be Chinese or Arabic.
Though/Despite
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Though we may find it hard to believe, the global language of the future might be Chinese or Arabic.
Though

(?) for students, in the future many school and university subjects are likely to be taught in English, using English materials.
Difficult though it may be/Strange as it seemed
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Difficult though it may be for students, in the future many school and university subjects are likely to be taught in English, using English materials.
Difficult though it may be

(?) way you look at it, children need to start learning English when they are as young as possible.
However/Whichever
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Whichever way you look at it, children need to start learning English when they are as young as possible.
Whichever

(?) increasing numbers of English speakers, the global predominance of English is likely to change.
Even though/In spite of
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In spite of increasing numbers of English speakers, the global predominance of English is likely to change.
In spite of

(?) being able to use simultaneous translation on their phones to speak to each other, people will still want to learn another language.
Even if/Despite
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Despite being able to use simultaneous translation on their phones to speak to each other, people will still want to learn another language.
Despite

(?) people continue to use English to communicate on the internet, the language itself will continue to change.
Whilst/Whichever
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Whilst people continue to use English to communicate on the internet, the language itself will continue to change.
Whilst

Use the rule to help you identify the main clauses and concession clauses in sentences above
Concession clauses are used to introduce information which contrasts with information in the main clause.
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In each case, the concession clause is the clause which is introduced by the phrase in italics. The other clause is the main clause.

What punctuation separates the clauses?
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a comma

Do the linkers in italics introduce the main clause or the concession clause?
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the concession clause

Most of the linkers in italics are followed by a verb clause. Which two are followed by a noun/-ing form?
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Despite, in spite of

Complete the sentences with the words in the box.
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however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite

American cars are generally too large for the Japanese market, (?) Japanese cars are popular in the USA.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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American cars are generally too large for the Japanese market, whereas Japanese cars are popular in the USA.
whereas (enquanto)

Hard (?) she tried, she couldn't get the door open.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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Hard as she tried, she couldn't get the door open.
as

No (?) how difficult it is, I'm determined to do my best.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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No matter how difficult it is, I'm determined to do my best.
matter

They explained that we could leave (?) we wanted to.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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They explained that we could leave whenever we wanted to.
whenever

She went to Spain (?) the fact that her doctor had told her to rest.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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She went to Spain despite the fact that her doctor had told her to rest.
despite

We went out in (?) of the rain.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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We went out in spite of the rain.

I really want the car, (?) much it costs.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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I really want the car, however much it costs.
however

We decided to take the room, (?) we knew we couldn't really afford the rent.
however, despite, although, as, whenever, whereas, matter, spite
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We decided to take the room, although we knew we couldn't really afford the rent.
although

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
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Write one or two sentences.

I spend too much time on the internet. I Know that it's bad for me.
(Despite)
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Despite knowing that it's bad for me, I spend too much time on the internet.

My grandmother is still fully independent. She is nearly ninety-six years old.
(Even though)
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Even though my grandmother/she is nearly ninety-six years old, she/my grandmother is still fully independent.

He's an excellent manager. He can be a bit scary to work for.
(... although...)
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He's an excellent manager, although he can be a bit scary to work for.

They tried hard. They couldn't persuade him to give up his work.
(Hard as)
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Hard as they tried, they couldn't persuade him to give up his work.

I understand how difficult the situation is. I'm afraid I can't help.
(Whilst)
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Whilst I understand how difficult the situation is, I'm afraid I can't help.

He's very charming. I wouldn't trust him at all.
(... however...)
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He's very charming, however I wouldn't trust him at all.

Write one sentence to connect each pair of ideas.
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Use the words in brackets. Think carefully about the punctuation.

I always try to speak to people in their local language/I don't speak it very well.
(even if)
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I always try to speak to people in their local language, even if I don't speak it very well.

I spend a lot of time studying grammar / I still make mistakes.
(though)
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I spend a lot of time studying grammar, though I still make mistakes.

It is difficult / I always try to believe what people tell me.
(difficult though)
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Difficult though it may be, I always try to believe what people tell me.

It doesn't matter which way you look at it / technology is changing education.
(However)
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However you look at it, technology is changing education.

I agree that English is important / I think students need to learn several languages.
(While)
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While I agree that English is important, I think students need to learn several languages.

It may seem strange / I find it hard to remember facts and figures.
(Strange as)
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Strange as it may seem, I find it hard to remember facts and figures.

It is a fact that I enjoy travelling / I don't get the opportunity very often.
(Despite)
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Despite the fact that I enjoy travelling, I don't get the opportunity very often.

Learning a language is difficult / it doesn't matter which method you choose.
(whichever)
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Learning a language is difficult, whichever method you choose.


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