MODAL VERBS AND RELATED PHRASES

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Question English
Answer English

modal verbs and related phrases
obligation, lack of obligation/prohibition, permission, ability
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present; past

I must finish this report - I don't want to annoy the boss.
obligation
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Must can express that the obligation is internal, not (only) because of a rule.

My mum makes me study for two hours every night.
obligation
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Use "make someone do something" when someone forces another person to do something.

I'm not supposed to eat chocolate but...
obligation
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Use be supposed to especially when the obligation is broken.

have to go, must go, make someone go
obligation (strong) - present
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had to go, -, made someone go
obligation (strong) - past

should go, ought to go, am supposed to go
obligation (mild) - present
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should have gone, ought to have gone, was supposed to go
obligation (mild) - past

You don't have to arrive before 5 p.m... (it's not necessary)
lack of obligation/prohibition
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You mustn't arrive before 5 p.m. (you're not allowed to)
Note the difference between don't have to and musn't.

don't have to go
lack of obligation - present
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didn't have to go
lack of obligation - past

mustn't go, can't go, am not allowed to go
prohibition (strong) - present
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couldn't go, wasn't allowed to go
prohibition (strong) - past

shouldn't go, oughtn't to go, am not supposed to go
prohibition (mild) - present
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shouldn't have gone, oughtn't to have gone, wasn't supposed to go
prohibition (mild) - past

Do you think she'll let me take a day off? My company allows us to work from home one day a week.
permission
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use let + someone or allow someone to say that someone gave permission to someone

can go, am allowed to go, may go, let someone go
permission - present
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could go, was allowed to go, might go, let someone go
permission - past

He was able to find his way out of the forest and get help.
ability
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for ability on a single occasion in the past, use was/were able to or managed to (not could).

He managed to run the race in under three hours.
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Use manage to for something that is/was difficult to do.

can/can't go, am/am not able to go, manage/don't manage to go
ability - present
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could/couldn't go, was/wasn't able to go, managed/didn't manage to go
ability - past

Traveller's journal - Changing times
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Underline the correct alternatives in the blog.

... it was the 1980s and travel there was very restricted back then. Of course you (1) get a visa to enter the country as well as a permit to travel to most cities.
had to/must
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... it was the 1980s and travel there was very restricted back then. Of course you had to get a visa to enter the country as well as a permit to travel to most cities.

Or at least you (2) get a permit;
should/were supposed to
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Or at least you were supposed to get a permit;

I didn't always get one, and once without a permit I (3) go to a town
could/managed to
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I didn't always get one, and once without a permit I managed to go to a town

that foreigners technically (4) go to.
couldn't/didn't have to
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that foreigners technically couldn't go to.

The police called me in and (5) me answer questions.
made/let
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The police called me in and made me answer questions.

I spoke the language a little so I was (6) communicate with them.
able to/allowed
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I spoke the language a little so I was able to communicate with them.

Once they were convinced that I wasn't a spy, they (7) me go
allowed/let
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Once they were convinced that I wasn't a spy, they let me go

and I was (8) to stay there as long as I wanted.
allowed /able
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and I was allowed to stay there as long as I wanted.

Of course, it's changed so much now. You still (9) get a visa to enter,
must/have to
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Of course, it's changed so much now. You still have to get a visa to enter,

but you (10) get a permit to go anywhere within the country.
mustn't/don't have to
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but you don't have to get a permit to go anywhere within the country.

As was always the case, if you (11) speak the language,
are able to/can
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As was always the case, if you can speak the language,

it's a really enriching experience, and I think everyone (12) try to spend at least a few weeks travelling there.
ought to/is supposed to
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it's a really enriching experience, and I think everyone ought to try to spend at least a few weeks travelling there.

Rewrite the sentences.
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Use the word in brackets so that the meaning stays the same.

I fell asleep. It was difficult.
manage
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I managed to fall asleep.

We stayed for dinner. There was no choice.
to
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We had to stay for dinner

He gave me permission to listen to my MP3 player
let
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He let me listen to my MP3 player.

It was too dark to see anything.
not able
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He wasn't able to see anything.

It's a good idea for her to leave before dark.
ought
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She ought to leave before dark.

The rule was to pay before going in. We didn't
suppose
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We were supposed to pay before going in (but we didn't)

The maximum age to enter this disco is eighteen.
not allow
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Adults aren't allowed to enter this disco.

I had to change my passport photo.
make
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They made me change my passport photo.

You mustn't cross at the red light.
mustn't
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prohibition
mustn't

Your mother says you can stay out late.
can
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permission
can

You don't have to worry about money for a nice holiday.
don't have to
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lack of obligation
don't have to

He has to work all hours.
has to
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obligation (strong)
has to

He can't find himself in his profession.
can't
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ability/lack of ability
can't

He feels he sould give everyone the impression that he's successful.
should
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obligation (weak)
should

Modal Verbs and Related Phrases

Modal verbs and related phraseshave an effect on the grammar of the verb phrases. Modals are part of a verb phrases, they give more information about the main verb by qualifying it in some way. Modal verbs are modal auxiliary verbs that express ability, necessity, obligation, duty, request, permission, advice, desire, probability, possibility, etc. modal verbs express the speaker’s attitude to the action indicated by the main verb. Modal verbs are very common and widely used in speech and writing. Here is the lesson of modal verbs and related phrase for those who learning English language

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