2. 1 MAKING A DIFFERENCE: PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS

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Question English
Answer English

Present perfect simple and continous
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Underline the correct alternative. Then check in the article. In which sentences are both forms possible?

We've done this / 've been doing this for three years now.
The perfect is used here to describe activities or states which started in the past and continue up to now.
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We've been doing this for three years now.
(used in the text, although "'ve done" is also possible)

Since we started, the company has cleaned / has been cleaning over a hundred outfits.
The perfect is used here to describe activities or states which started in the past and continue up to now.
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Since we started, the company has cleaned over a hundred outfits.

Twenty-six-year-old Ryan Sinclair has always loved / has always been loving bikes.
The perfect is used here to describe activities or states which started in the past and continue up to now.
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Twenty-six-year-old Ryan Sinclair has always loved bikes.

The bike has turned / has been turning their lives around.
The perfect is used to describe an event/action in the past which is completed although we don't know when. The link is that we are interested now in the result this has had.
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The bike has turned their lives around.

We've already raised / 've been raising £4,000.
The perfect is used to describe an event/action in the past which is completed although we don't know when. The link is that we are interested now in the result this has had.
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We've already raised £4,000.

We've danced / 've been dancing since 5 o'clock and I'm exhausted!
The perfect is used because the activity has only just finished and we can see the result now.
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We've been dancing since 5 o'clock and I'm exhausted!

Who is Kufuo?
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He's a farmer in a village of Ghana.
Kufuo is a friend of the writer's. He's a cocoa grower in Ghana and does work for Fairtrade.

I've been working / I've worked with Fairtrade organisations to help developing markets get fair prices for goods since I finished university,
Fairtrade is a charitable organisation that aims to help producers in developing markets to get price for their goods.
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I've been working / I've worked with Fairtrade organisations to help developing markets get fair prices for goods since I finished university,
've been working emphasises the lenght of time

and I (visit) over thirty countries in connection with my work.
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and I've visited over thirty countries in connection with my work.

This year I (live) in a village in one of my favourite countries, Ghana.
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This year I've been living in a village in one of my favourite countries, Ghana.
've been living here slightly emphasises the idea that it's temporary

I (meet) so many wonderful people here.
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I've met so many wonderful people here.

One of my closest friends is Kufuo, who I (know) since I started coming here.
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One of my closest friends is Kufuo, who I've known since I started coming here.

He (grow) cocoa all his life
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He's grown/been growing cocoa all his life
've been growing emphasises the lenght of time

and (follow) Fairtrade guidelines for producting cocoa for several years now.
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and he has followed/has been following Fairtrade guidelines for producting cocoa for several years now.
has been following emphasises the lenght of time

Recently he (recruit) more than thirty other farmers in the local area into our group
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Recently he's recruited more than thirty other farmers in the local area into our group

and they (double) the volume of cocoa exported.
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and they've doubled the volume of cocoa exported.

As a result, Fairtrade (become) one of the most important movements in this region.
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As a result, Fairtrade has become one of the most important movements in this region.

RULE 1 Use the Present Perfect Continuous when we want to emphasise that an action is repeated or has lasted for a long time and continues up to now.
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We've been doing this for three years now.
We've been dancing since 5 o'clock and I'm exhausted!

RULE 2 Use the Present Perfect Simple when an action is shorter and completed before now. It has present relevance or a present effect.
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Since we started, the company has cleaned over a hundred outfits. The bike has turned their lives around.
We've already raised £4,000.

RULE 3 Use the Present Perfect Simple when we say how many times someone did something or say how much they did
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Since we started, the company has cleaned over a hundred outfits. We've already raised £4,000.

RULE 4 Use the Present Perfect Simple OR the Present Perfect Continuous with verbs such as work, live, wait, study, do with little or no difference in meaning.
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We've been doing this for three years now.
(used in the text, although "'ve done" is also possible)

RULE 5 Use the Present Perfect Simple with state verbs such as know, have, be, love,
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Twenty-six-year-old Ryan Sinclair has always loved bikes.

How long have you been working here?
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I've been here for over ten months now.

How many chocolates have you eaten?
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I've only had three!

What have you been doing? You're filthy!
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I've been running.


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