10.2 participle clauses

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Use participle clauses (clauses that start with a present participle or a past participle)
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to vary your style or to include more information in a sentence.

Use them as a shorter alternative to relative clauses.
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Form the participle clause by omitting the relative pronoun and any auxiliary verbs.

Clauses beginning with a past participle
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have a passive meaning.

The children caught in the rainstorm came home soaked.
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The children who were caught...

The film, directed by Miyakazi, won an award for animation.
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which was directed by Miyakazi...

Clauses beginning with a present participle
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have an active meaning.

The team playing in red is Chile.
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The team that is playing in red...

Do you know the man standing in the corner?
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The man who is standing...

Clauses beginning with a present participle
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replace continuous and simple verbs in different tenses.

Give me a number beginning with three.
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Give me a number which begins with three.

Anyone cheating in the exam failed.
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Anyone who cheated in the exam failed.

The bus leaving tomorrow will stop at Lima.
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The bus which is leaving/leaves tomorrow...

A beret is a type of flat hat often (wear) on one side of the head.
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A beret is a type of flat hat often worn on one side of the head.

The large number of people (wait) outside meant the doctor would be working late that night.
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The large number of people waiting outside meant the doctor would be working late that night.

Items permanently (delete) from your inbox can usually be found again if you know where to look.
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Items permanently deleted from your inbox can usually be found again if you know where to look.

I knew two people (injure) in the fire.
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I knew two people injured in the fire.

Babies (bring up) in a bilingual household have more flexible brains.
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Babies brought up in a bilingual household have more flexible brains.

The dance (take) place tomorrow is to celebrate the end of the exams.
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The dance taking place tomorrow is to celebrate the end of the exams.

The taxi almost drove over a man. He was lying in the street.
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The taxi almost drove over a man lying in the street.

Sunflowers was painted by Van Gogh. It's one of the most popular paintings ever.
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Sunflowers, painted by Van Gogh, is one of the most popular paintings ever.

The army advanced towards the hill. It was led by Napoleon.
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The army, led by Napoleon, advanced towards the hill.

I don't know the people. They live next door to me.
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I don't know the people living next door to me.

I used to like block-busters. They involved lots of action.
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I used to like block-busters involving lots of action.

The apartments overlook Central Park. They are the most expensive.
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The apartments overlooking Central Park are the most expensive.

Some factories were forced to close during the recession. They still haven't reopened.
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Some factories forced to close during the recession still haven't reopened.

Many people think that the Taj Mahal is the most beautiful building in the world. It was built in the seventeenth century.
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Many people think that the Taj Mahal, built in the seventeenth century, is the most beautiful building in the world.


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