10.2 PARTICIPLE CLAUSES

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Question English
Answer English

registered at hotels under their real name
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Who/that are registered at hotels under their real name

trying to take their pictures
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Who/that are trying to take their pictures

taking selfies
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Who/that are taking selfies

involving wordplay
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which/that involve wordplay

married in 2000 but divorced five years later
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who were/got married in 2000 but were/got divorced five years later

used by George Clooney
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which/that was used by George Clooney.

Which two verb forms can a participle clause begin with?
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present participle (-ing form) or past participle

Names which involve wordplay are common / Names involving wordplay are common
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Names involving wordplay are common
the participle clause

The people who worked in the hotel thought the name was funny. / The people working in the hotel thought the name was funny.
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The people working in the hotel thought the name was funny.
the participle clause

the hotel, which was built in the 1980s and which is often used by film stars, is famous. / The hotel, built in the 1980s and regularly used by film stars, is famous.
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The hotel, built in the 1980s and regularly used by film stars, is famous.
the participle clause

When a relative clause has an active verb in the present simple or past simple,
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the participle clause uses a present participle.

When a relative clause has a passive verb in the present simple or past simple,
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the participle clause uses a past participle.

Try to improve this sentence by using a participle clause. I couldn't concentarte on the concert because there were so many people who took photos.
Using participle clauses can improve the level of your writing and speaking.
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I couldn't concentrate on the concert because so many people were taking photos.

People who take photos should ask their subjects' permission first.
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People taking photos should ask their subjects' permission first.

Films that are based on books are disappointing.
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Films based on books are disappointing.

It's great to see rock stars in their sixties who still play concerts.
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It's great to see rock stars in their sixties still playing concerts.

Architecture which was designed in the 1960s is generally quite ugly and ought to be pulled down.
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Architecture designed in the 1960s is generally quite ugly and ought to be pulled down.

Photos of people who are posing for the camera don't work as well as spontaneous pictures.
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Photos of people posing for the camera don't work as well as spontaneous pictures.

Film and TV stars who appear at the theatre attract huge audiences.
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Film and TV stars appearing at the theatre attract huge audiences.

Jokes which involve racial stereotypes are not funny.
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Jokes involving racial stereotypes are not funny.

Photographers who used software to enhance their photos were justifiably banned from entering a national competition last month.
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Photographers using software to enhance their photos were justifiably banned from entering a national competition last month.


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