10.1 RELATIVE CLAUSES

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Question English
Answer English

What film do you never get bored with?
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Complete the online forum messages with who, which, whose, where or when.

The Shawshank Redemption is a prison movie (1) goes beyond the violence seen in most such films.
the film tells the story of Andy Dufresne, a banker who is sentenced to life in Shawshank State Penitentiary for the murder of his wife and her lover, despite his claims of innocence.
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The Shawshank Redemption is a prison movie which goes beyond the violence seen in most such films.
That can be used.

The story centres on the life-changing relationship between a new prisoner, Andy (Tim Robbins), (2) is imprisoned for murder,
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The story centres on the life-changing relationship between a new prisoner, Andy (Tim Robbins), who is imprisoned for murder,

and Red (Morgan Freeman), a long-time prisoner (3) he makes friends with.
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and Red (Morgan Freeman), a long-time prisoner who he makes friends with.
That can be used. The relative pronoun can be omitted.

You really care about these two characters, (4) unlikely friendship blossoms over the course of the film.
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You really care about these two characters, whose unlikely friendship blossoms over the course of the film.
if trees blossom, they produce flowers

I must have seen it twenty times and it's the one movie (5) I never get bored with,
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I must have seen it twenty times and it's the one movie which I never get bored with,
That can be used. The relative pronoun can be omitted.

especially Robbins' and Freeman's performances, for (6), surprisingly, neither won a major award.
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especially Robbins' and Freeman's performances, for which, surprisingly, neither won a major award.

My all-time favourite is Groundhog Day, in (7) Bill Murray relives one day over again.
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My all-time favourite is Groundhog Day, in which Bill Murray relives one day over again.

He plays Phil, a TV weatherman visiting a small U.S. town, (8) he reports on a local annual festival.
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He plays Phil, a TV weatherman visiting a small U.S. town, where he reports on a local annual festival.

Phil detests the assignment and the local people, (9) makes his situation even worse when he gets stuck with both.
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Phil detests the assignment and the local people, which makes his situation even worse when he gets stuck with both.

The story is endlessly inventive, by turns hilarious and poignant. It is especially touching in the moment (10) Phil realises he loves Rita (Andie Macdowell)
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The story is endlessly inventive, by turns hilarious and poignant. It is especially touching in the moment when Phil realises he loves Rita (Andie Macdowell)
That can be used. The relative pronoun can be omitted.

but can't win her, (11) is a turning point in his transformation into a decent human being.
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but can't win her, which is a turning point in his transformation into a decent human being.

He actually ends up loving the town (12) inhabitants he initially despised. A classic!
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He actually ends up loving the town whose inhabitants he initially despised. A classic!

Defining relative clauses give (?) information about a person, thing, place or time.
essential/extra
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Defining relative clauses give essential information about a person, thing, place or time.

Non-defining relative clauses give (?) information.
essential/extra
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Non-defining relative clauses give extra information.

The relative pronoun that can replace who or which in (?) clauses only.
defining/non-defining
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The relative pronoun that can replace who or which in defining clauses only.

The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the (?) of the verb in the relative clause.
subject/object
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The relative pronoun can be omitted when it is the object of the verb in the relative clause.

Prepositions can come (a) or (b). (?) is more formal?
(a) at the beginning/end of a clause; (b) before/after the relative pronoun. (a)/(b)
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Prepositions can come at the end of a clause or before the relative pronoun.
before the relative clause is more formal

(?) introducing a relative clause can be used to refer the whole of a previous clause.
What/Which
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Which introducing a relative clause can be used to refer the whole of a previous clause.

Commas are used before and after (?) clauses.
defining/non-defining
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Commas are used before and after non-defining clauses.


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