My lesson "M"
My lesson "M"
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You're going to swim in that water? You must be mad! That's a mad idea.
In conversation, you can say that a stupid action or suggestion is mad.
Mum went mad when I told her. He's mad at me because I broke his computer.
In conversation, mad can also mean angry. If you go mad, you become angry. If you are mad at someone, you are angry with them. When you use mad in this way, don't put it in front of a noun.
angry. Don't use mad in formal writing.
Susan is mentally ill... the treatment of mentally ill patients.
If someone has an illness that makes them behave in strange ways, you should not say that they are mad. You should say that they are mentally ill.
Most wine is made from grapes.
If one thing is made from another thing, the first thing is produced from the second thing and the second thing is changed completely in the process.
The hut was made of logs.
hut: cabana; log: toro, tronco
If something was used to produce another thing, and it was not completely changed, use made of. Don't use made from.
He was wearing a hat made out of an old coat.
If something was produced from another thing in an unusual way, use made out of.
made out of
I often read fashion magazines.
A magazine is a thin book with stories and pictures that you can buy every week or every month.
I work in a clothes shop.
Don't use magazine to talk about a place where you buy things. The word you use is shop.
I made the wrong decision. In 1978 he made his first visit to Australia.
You can use make when you want to say that someone does or says something.
make: doing and saying things
If someone suggests something, you can say that
they make a suggestion.
If someone promises something, you can say that
they make a promise.
the past tense form and past participle of make is made.
Here are a list of common nouns that you can use with make in this way:
arrangement, choice, comment, decision, effort, mistake, noise, plan, point, promise, sound, speech, suggestion, visit.
What have you done? You've done a lot to help us.
You use make only when you are mentioning a particular action. When you are talking generally about action, you use do.
Sheila makes all her own clothes.
If you make an object or substance, you create or produce it.
make: creating and producing things
I made his breakfast.
You can also say that someone makes a meal or a drink.
I have made you a drink. My grandmother made this dress for me.
If you create or produce something for another person, you can say that you make someone something, or make something for someone.
Manuelito managed to escape. How did you manage to do that?
If you manage to do something, you succeed in doing it.
manage. Don't use an -ing form after manage.
He arranged for the parcel to be sent to America. I arranged for a mechanic to fix the car.
Don't use that after manage. Say that you arrange for something to be done, or that you arrange for someone to do something.
How many brothers and sisters do you have?
You use many in front of a plural noun when you are asking about numbers of people or things.
He doesn't have many friends.
You use not ... many in negative statements when you are talking about a small number of people or things.
Many people disagreed with him.
You can also use many in positive statements when you are talking about a large number of people or things.
I have a lot of books.
In conversation, people often use a lot of or lots of instead of many.
Many of them had to leave. How many of his books have you read?
You use many of in front of a plural pronoun, or in front of a determiner such as the or his followed by a plural noun.
many of. Don't use many with uncountable nouns. Use much.
We had toast and marmalade for breakfast.
Marmalade is a sweet food made from oranges, lemons, limes, or grapefruit. People often spread it on bread.
My wife made this delicious strawberry jam.
Jam is a sweet food made from other fruit such as blackberries, strawberries, or apricots.
... a raspberry jelly sandwitch.
jelly: 1 BrE gelatina 2 geleia, compota raspberry: framboesa
In American English, a food like this is often called jelly.
He had three children from his first marriage. They had a happy marriage.
Marriage is the state of being married, or the relationship between a husband and wife.
I was invited to Paul and Sue's wedding.
You don't usually use marriage to talk about the ceremony in witch two people get married. The word you use is wedding.
Her daughter is married to a Frenchman.
If you are married to someone, that person is your husband or wife.
I want to marry him.
When you marry someone, you become their husband or wife during a special ceremony.
I'm getting married next month. They got married in October 1994.
You don't usually use marry without a following noun. Use get married.
The lampshades matched the curtains. Do these shoes match my dress?
If one thing has the same colour or pattern as another thing, you say that the first thing matches the other thing.
match. Don't say matches to.
What's the matter? You seem unhappy.
You can say What's the matter? to ask about a problem or difficulty.
What's the matter?
The problem is that she can't cook.
Don't use the matter with this meaning in other types of sentences. Say: the problem or the trouble.
I'm sorry, I've spilled some milk. -It doesn't matter.
When someone apologizes to you, you can say it doesn't matter.
He told me about it. He looked at me angrily.
You use me to talk about yourself. Me can be the object of a verb or a preposition.
I made myself some breakfast.
Don't use me when the person who is speaking is both the subject and the object of the verb. Say: I got myself a drink.
What does software mean? Unable means not able.
You use mean when you are talking about the meaning of a word or expression.
mean. The past tense form and past participle of mean is meant. You must use does in sentences like these.
I'm sorry, I didn't mean to hurt you.
If you mean to do something, you intend to do it.
I think it will rain tomorrow. Scientists believe that life began four billion years ago.
Don't use mean when you are talking about people's opinions or beliefs. Use think or believe. Say: Most of the directors think he should resign.
The word set has many different meanings.
The meaning of a word or expression is the thing or idea that it represents.
My intention is to retire next year.
Don't use meaning to say what someone intends to do. Say Her intention was to leave before midnight.
If you want my opinion, I think this is a terrible idea.
Don't use meaning to say what someone thinks about something. Say I think he should resign. What's your opinion?
He told his story to the media.
You can call television, radio, and newspapers the media.
The media is full of pictures of worried families.
In conversation, some people use a singular form of a verb with the media.
The media have not commented on the story.
In formal writing, however, you should use a plural form of a verb.
They still hope that he might be alive. It may rain tomorrow. I might go to London next year.
You can use might or may to say that it is possible that something is true or will happen in the future. May is more formal than might.
might - may
Where's Jack? - He could be upstairs.
You can use could in a similar way.
He might not be in England at all. That mightn't be true.
You use might not or may not to say that it is possible that something is not true. In cionversation, you can also use the short form mightn't.
You can't talk to dead people.
Don't use might not or may not to say that it is impossible that something is true. Use could not, cannot or can't.
Could this be true?
Don't use may when you are asking if something is possible. Use might or could. Say Might he be right? or Could he be right?
She made up her mind to write to Frances.
When someone decides to do something, you can say that they make up their mind to do it.
make up your mind
I don't mind walking.
If you have no objection to doing something, you can say that you don't mind doing it.
Do you want me to invite Marcin? - I don't mind, if you want to. It was raining, but he didn't mind.
You can show that you do not object to a situation or suggestion by saying I don't mind.
He made a terrible mistake. Tony made three spelling mistakes in his essay.
A mistake is something that is not correct. You say that someone makes a mistake.
mistake. Don't use do with mistake.
I called the wrong number by mistake.
Say that someone does something by mistake.
There's a fault in one of the appliances.
Don't use mistake to talk about something wrong in a machine. Use fault.
Cars cost a lot of money. She spends too much money on clothes.
Money is the coins or bank notes that you use to buy things.
Money isn't important.
After money you use a singular form of a verb
Money is an uncountable noun.
We sold more cars this year than last year. We need more information.
You use more or more of to show that you are talking about a larger number of people or things, or an additional number of people or things.
more and more of. You can use more in front of both plural and uncountable nouns.
More of them are getting jobs. He wants to spend more of his time with his children.
You use more of in front of a pronoun or a determiner (such as the or his)
My husband died more than twenty years ago. Police arrested more than seventy people.
If you want to show that there is a larger amount of something than a particular number, you use more than in front of the number.
More than 100 people were at the party.
You use a plural form of a verb after more than.
Love is more important than money. Next time, I will choose more carefully.
You can use more to form comparative adjectives and adverbs. You use more in front of adjectives that have two or more syllables. You use more in front of most adverbs that ended in -ly.
more used in comparatives
Krish is taller than me.
Don't use more with adjectives that have only one syllable. Instead, add -er to the end of the adjective.
Most people think he is a great actor.
You use most or most of to show that you are talking about the largest part or amount of people or things.
most and most of. You use most in front of plural nouns.
Most of us have strong views on politics. He spends most of his time in the library. Most of Roberta's friends came to the party.
You use most of in front of a pronoun or a determiner (such as the or his).
When you use most like this, don't use the in front of it. She ate most of the cake.
He is the most intelligent man I know. The disease spreads most easily in dirty conditions.
You can also use most to form superlative adjectives and adverbs. You use the most in front of adjectives that have two or more syllables. You use most in front of most adverbs that end in -ly.
most used in superlatives
This is the largest room in the house.
Don't use the most with adjectives that have only one syllable. Use the followed by the adjective with -est at the end.
I enjoyed it very much.
You use very much to emphasize something.
very much. You do not usually use very much directly after a verb. Say I enjoyed the party very much.
I didn't like him much.
In positive sentences, don't use much without very. In negative sentences, you can use much without very.
She doesn't talk about them much. Does he come here much?
You can use much in negative sentences and questions to mean often.
much meaning often. Don't use much in positive sentences to mean often.
She was much older than me. Now I feel much more confident.
You can use much in front of comparative adjectives and adverbs when you want to emphasize the difference between two things.
much used with comparatives
There isn't much danger. Is this going to make much difference? It gave the President too much power.
You use much in front of an uncountable noun when you are talking about a large amount of something. Much is usually used like this in negative sentences, in questions, or after too, so, or as.
much used in front of a noun
I did a lot of work at the weekend.
In positive sentences, you don't usually use much in this way. Instead, you use a lot of.
I must leave soon. We have to get up early tomorrow. I need to make a phone call.
You can use must, have to or need to in order to say that something is necessary.
saying that something is necessary. After must you use an infinitive without to.
She had to go work immediately.
If you want to say that something was necessary in the past, you use had to. Don't use must.
We mustn't forget to call Mum.
You use must not or mustn't to say that it is important that something is not done.
I don't have to go to work tomorrow. You don't need to tell me if you don't want to.
If you want to say that it is not necessary that something is done, use don't have to, or don't need to. Don't use must not or musn't.
saying that something is not necessary or important.
Claire's car isn't there, so she must be at work.
You use must to say that you strogly believe that something is true, because of particular facts.
saying that you believe something is true
The two messages cannot both be true.
If you want to say that you believe something is not true, you use cannot or can't. Don't use must not or musn't.
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