LESSON 12 GERUND OR TO INFINITIVE

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Question English
Answer English

Gerund after PREPOSITIONS
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I'm tired of running.

Gerund after CERTAIN VERBS: like, love, hate, enjoy, mind, finish, stop
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I enjoy seeing you.

Gerund as the SUBJECT of a sentence
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Smoking is a pleasure.

TO+INFINITIVE After ADJECTIVES
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This problem is difficult to solve.

TO+INFINITIVE After CERTAIN VERBS: would like, want, need, decide, hope, expect, plan, forget, seem, try, promise, offer, refuse, learn, manage.
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I would like to escape.

TO+INFINITIVE To express PURPOSE/REASON
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I'm chasing this guy to earn my bread and butter.

Stop! I'm tired of running.
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This is a difficult situation to solve. I enjoy seeing you tired, but I would also like to escape.

USUALLY: FOR CURRENT HABITS
Melissa, a good English teacher, usually makes students repeat sentences correctly. This usually bothers Meritxell, her student, a little.
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subject + USUALLY + verb
Melissa, a good English teacher, usually makes students repeat sentences correctly. This usually bothers Meritxell, her student, a little.

USED TO: FOR PAST HABITS OR PAST SITUATIONS THAT HAVE CHANGED
Meritxell used to take drugs, but now she doesn't even smoke.
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subject + USED TO + infinitive
Meritxell used to take drugs, but now she doesn't even smoke.

BE USED TO: FOR A NEW SITUATION THAT YOU ARE ALREADY ACCUSTOMED TO
Melissa is used to craving food all the time since she quit smoking. craving a very strong desire for something: a craving for chocolate
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subject + BE USED TO + gerund or noun
Melissa is used to craving food all the time since she quit smoking.

GET USED TO: FOR SOMETHING THAT IS BECOMING FAMILIAR TO YOU OR TO WHICH YOU ARE ADAPTING.
Melissa and Meritxell haven't gotten used to living without addictions.
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subject + GET USED TO + gerund or noun

Repeat after me: I used to take drugs.
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I used to take drugs.

I wish you were here. I wish we were lying in bed together.
You can use "were" for I/he/she/it.

WISH is commonly used
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to express regret or in reference to unreal situations.

Wishes for the PRESENT and FUTURE
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Use PAST SIMPLE or PAST CONTINUOUS

Use PAST SIMPLE
He wishes she were here.
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to express when you would like a situation to be different.
He wishes she were here.

Use PAST CONTINUOUS
He wishes they were lying on the bed.
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to express when you would like to be doing something different.
He wishes they were lying on the bed.

Wishes for the PAST
I wish you would stop laughing at me. Now I wish you hadn't come over.
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Use PAST PERFECT
I wish you would stop laughing at me. Now I wish you hadn't come over.

Use PAST PERFECT
He wishes she handn't come over.
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to express regret or when you would like a situation to be different.

To COMPLAIN or express IMPATIENCE
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Use WOULD+VERB or COULD+VERB

Use WOULD+VERB
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He wishes she would stop laughing.

Use COULD+VERB
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He wishes he could make her disappear.

You can use SUBJECT+WISH+PRONOUN in fixed expressions:
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I wish you the best.

RATHER at The Museum of Modern Art
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I would rather shoot myself than wait in line with all these snobs.

Look and learn! You have to be an alternative artist.
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Oh Daddy! I would rather just be a waitress.

RATHER is used
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to express PREFERENCE

RATHER THAN
He is a sex maniac rather than an art enthusiastic
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means "instead of" or "and not". Normally used to compare parallel structures.

WOULD RATHER ... THAN
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means "would prefer to...

WOULD RATHER ... THAN is used to show preference between options.
Elvis would rather be the center of attention than be just like everybody else.
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SUBJECT+WOULD RATHER+INFINITIVE without to+OPTION 1+THAN+OPTION 2
Elvis would rather be the center of attention than be just like everybody else.

WOULD RATHER
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means "would prefer"

WOULD RATHER is used to show preference for one option over another.
-Hey, Jeff! Let's get out of here! -I'd rather stay here.
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SUBJECT+WOULD RATHER+INFINITIVE without to+OPTION
-Hey, Jeff! Let's get out of here! -I'd rather stay here.

OR RATHER
She is distracted, or rather, she is pretending to be distracted.
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Used to change what it is just said.
She is distracted, or rather, she is pretending to be distracted.

RATHER
Marilyn had a rather tender look.
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is also an adverb of degree. It means "quite".
Marilyn had a rather tender look.

Connectors
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Connectors, also called linking words or linkers, indicate the relationship between ideas.

The last clue drove Harry to the wood house on top of the montain. Maybe this would be the telltale clue. The weather was very bad and, (?), the car lights
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The last clue drove Harry to the wood house on top of the montain. Maybe this would be the telltale clue. The weather was very bad and, in addition, the car lights

the car lights didn't work (?) they had been shout out a couple of hours earlier.
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the car lights didn't work because they had been shout out a couple of hours earlier.

(?) all this, Harry managed to get to the place and get out of the car unnoticed.
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Despite all this, Harry managed to get to the place and get out of the car unnoticed.

The lights of the house were on (?) Harry carefully crawled through the bushes until he reached the window.
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The lights of the house were on so Harry carefully crawled through the bushes until he reached the window.

There he saw Elisabeth crying. (?), a shiver came over his body.
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There he saw Elisabeth crying. Suddenly, a shiver came over his body.

(?) crying,
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Instead of crying,

Elisabeth was actually laughing (?) looking directly into Harry's eyes
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Elisabeth was actually laughing and looking directly into Harry's eyes

(?) holding the gun.
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while holding the gun.

Type of connectors
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by meaning

GIVING EXAMPLES
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for example (e.g.), for instance, such as

INTRODUCING A TOPIC
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with regard to, regarding, concerning, by the way

ADDING INFORMATION
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and, also, too, as well as, in addition, apart from, besides, furthermore, moreover, then again

SUMMARIZING
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in short, in brief, in summary, to conclude, in conclusion

GIVING REASON
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because, because of, for, since, as, due to, owing to

INTRODUCING DEVELOPMENTS
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so, consequently, as a result, therefore, thus, hence

REFLECTING CONTRAST
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but, however, although, even though, though, despite, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, while, whereas, unlike, on the other hand, anyway

SEQUENCING IDEAS
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firstly, secondly, thirdly, to begin with, next, lastly, finaly

DURING THE NARRATIVE
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at the beginning, then, at last, once, afterwards, suddenly, finally, in the end

EMPHASIZING
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obviously, particularly, in theory, in fact, especially

SHOWING CERTAINTY
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surely, indeed, undoubtedly, certainly, even so

Relative Clauses
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A relative clause is a dependent clause that mofifies a word, phrase or idea in the main clause.

A relative clause begins with a
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RELATIVE PRONOUN WHO, WHOM, WHOSE, THAT or WHITCH
The type of clause determines which relative pronoun to use. (in certain situations, WHAT, WHEN and WHERE can function as relative pronouns)

There are two types of relative clauses:
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NON-DEFINING CLAUSES and DEFINING CLAUSES

Defining Clauses
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The information contained in defining clauses is ESSENTIAL. When deleted, it's nor clear who or what is being talked about.
This type of clause is NOT separated by a COMMA.

In this type of clause the relative pronouns used are:
The woman who is pushing a stroller is her heroine
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For people: WHO, THAT (and WHOM followed by a preposition). For things: WHICH, THAT
stroller: a chair on wheels in which a small child can be pushed along SYN buggy British English

Non-defining Clauses
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In non-defining clauses the information is NOT ESSENTIAL. When deleted, it's still clear who or what is being talked about.
This type of clause is separated by a COMMA from the main clause.

In this type of clause the relative pronouns used are:
Exercise, which is supposed to be good for your health, is killing her.
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For people: WHO (and WHOM, WHOSE) For things: WHICH (and WHOSE)

ACTIVE & PASSIVE VOICES
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There are two voices in English: the active and the passive

The ACTIVE VOICE
The dog bit Julianne's leg.
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describes what the subject does.
The dog bit Julianne's leg.

The PASSIVE VOICE
Julianne's leg was bitten by some dog.
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describes what is done to the subject. It's usually used when we don't know or are not interested in who performs the action.
Julianne's leg was bitten by some dog.

The passive voice is formed with:
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TO BE+PAST PARTICIPLE
is made...

It can also be formed by:
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TO GET+PAST PARTICIPLE
got broken...

All the verb tenses can be expressed in passive voice.
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The concert will be performed next week. The concert has been performed already.

BY is used
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to show the person or thing doing the action.
The painting was made by a monkey.

I would like him to be eaten too.
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The pigeons are eating a worm. Worms are eaten every day all over the world.

Reported Speech
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I need a friend ASAP. She said she needed a friend ASAP.
ASAP the abbreviation of as soon as possible

There are two ways to repeat what another person said:
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DIRECT SPEECH and REPORTED SPEECH

DIRECT SPEECH
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uses exact words in quotation marks.
She said "I need a friend".

REPORTED SPEECH
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is indirect.
She said she needed a friend.

Reported speech uses
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the past form of direct speech.

I need a friend.
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She said she needed a friend.

I'm feeling alone.
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She said she was feeling alone.

I've spent all Sundays watching TV.
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She said she had spent all Sunday watching TV.

I will go to bed early.
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She said she would go to bed early.

When direct speech uses a past form,
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reported speech doesn't change.

I was afraid.
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She said she was afraid.

I was looking for a better life.
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She said she was looking for a better life.


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