Lecture 01: Introduction to Programming Languages

 0    30 flashcards    up804653
download mp3 print play test yourself
 
Question English
Answer English

What are the main Programming Domains
start learning
Scientific applications, Business applications, Artificial intelligence, Systems programming, Web Software

What are the main characteristics of Scientific applications
start learning
Large numbers of floating point computations; use of arrays

Give an example scientific domain language
start learning
Fortran (Formula Translating System, IBM)

What are the main characteristics of Business applications?
start learning
Produce reports, use decimal numbers and characters

Give an example of a Business applications language.
start learning
COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)

What are the main characteristics of Artificial intelligence domain languages?
start learning
Symbols rather than numbers manipulated; use of linked lists

give an example of an artificial intelligence language
start learning
LISP (LISt Processing)

What are the main characteristics of Systems programming languages
start learning
Need efficiency because of continuous use

Give an example of a Systems programming language
start learning
Give an example of a Systems programming in English
C

What are the main characteristics of Web Software
start learning
Eclectic collection of languages: markup (e.g., HTML), scripting (e.g., PHP), general-purpose (e.g., Java)

What are the main Language Categories by Uses?
start learning
Machine languages, Assembly languages, High-level languages, System programming languages, Scripting languages, Domain-specific languages

Describe Machine languages
start learning
[1] hardware implemented languages. [2] The set of the instructions of a processor. [3] Machine code is usually written in hexdecimal numbers.

Describe Assembly languages
start learning
[1] machine codes are wrapped with alphanumeric symbols so that the instructions are more readable. [2] They also have labeled storage locations, jump targets and subroutine starting addresses.

Describe High-level languages
start learning
[1] Machine-independent, similar to natural language.[2] Are usually characterised with variables, types, subroutines, functions, constants[3] complex expressions[4] control structures,(conditionals, switches, loops)[5] composite types (arrays, structs)

What does machine independant mean?
start learning
independent of the machine instructions of any particular processors)

Describe System programming languages
start learning
[1] deal with: memory and process management, I/O operations, device drivers, operating systems.

Describe Scripting languages
start learning
[1] used to write programs in system administration [2] analyse / transform large amounts of regular text info [3] act as“glue”between different apps [4] make simple GUI to control an existing app [5] interpreted not compiled [6] Good string processing

Describe Domain-specific languages
start learning
unlike general purpose languages, they are used in highly special-purpose areas only, e.g., PostScript - a language for creating vector graphics for the electronic publishing (Adobe).

What are the major Categories by Paradigms
start learning
Procedural, Functional, Logic

Describe Procedural Paradigm
start learning
[1] A program is built from one or more procedures (subroutines or functions) [2] Central features are variables, assignment statements, and iteration [3] Include languages that support object-oriented programming [4] Include scripting languages

Give some examples of Procedural languages
start learning
C, Java, Perl, JavaScript, Visual BASIC. NET, C++,...

Describe Functional Paradigm
start learning
Main means of making computations is by applying functions to given parameters

Give examples of some Functional languages
start learning
Haskell, LISP, Scheme, ML (MetaLanguage), F#, etc

Describe Logic paradigms
start learning
Rule-based (rules are specified in no particular order)

give an example of logic language
start learning
Prolog

What are the categories when organiseng languages by How Tasks are Specified
start learning
Imperative languages or Declarative languages

Describe imperative languages
start learning
[1] computing tasks are defined as sequences of commands (statements) for the computer to perform. [2] a program in such language tells computer what to do step-by-step (to make the computer change from one state to the next).

Give example of Imperative langauage
start learning
procedural languages

Describe Declarative languages
start learning
[1] programs describe their desired results without explicitly listing commands or steps that must be performed.

give examples of declarative programming languages
start learning
functional and logical programming languages belong to this category.


You must sign in to write a comment