English Master: Topic Vocabulary

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daycare centre
Many parents like daycare centers because they offer a formal, structured environment.
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a place where parents pay to leave their children while the parents work

nursery school
Many parents may be wondering if they really need to put their kids in nursery school.
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a school for children between the ages of about two and five

Because education is not compulsory in all countries, there are many children who do not attend school.
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if something is compulsory, you must do it because of a rule or law

denominational school
Non-government schools include Catholic schools, other denominational schools, and non-denominational independent schools.
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a school associated with a particular religious group

higher education
The programme aims to forge links between higher education and small businesses.
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education at a college or university where subjects are studied at an advanced level

The work intake process identifies standards and processes that will be utilized for the intake of work requests.
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the number of people who join a school, profession etc. at a particular time

Grants and scholarships are often called “gift aid” because they are free money—financial aid that doesn’t have to be repaid. Grants are often need-based, while scholarships are usually merit-based.
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an amount of money that is given to someone by a government, a company, etc., to be used for a particular purpose (such as scientific research)

Grants and scholarships are often called “gift aid” because they are free money—financial aid that doesn’t have to be repaid. Grants are often need-based, while scholarships are usually merit-based.
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an amount of money that is given to someone by an educational organization to help pay for their education

Typically, fellowships fund study, research, or teaching in the U.S. or abroad. Fellowships are an investment in your future, not a reward for previous work.
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money given to a student to allow them to continue their studies at an advanced level

to read (history)
At 20, I once took a train from Leeds to Edinburgh, chatted with a young man, asked him what he was reading at university -- "auto mechanics", he said.
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to study a subject at a university

vocational training
Vocational training programs allow students to get ready for specific careers. Some high schools provide vocational training.
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training that teaches you the skills you need to do a particular job

A management trainee is an individual who undergoes training for managerial or supervisory positions. A management trainee program is the best way to prepare employees to become managers in the future.
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a person who is learning and practising the skills of a particular job

refresher course
Every now and then, even successful, experienced English language teachers can benefit from a refresher course.
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a training course that keeps people informed about new developments in their area of interest or skill

The International Baccalaureate curriculum takes a student-centered approach to learning, allowing learners a level of independence designed to foster their creativity and help them learn more effectively.
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the subjects that are taught by a school, college etc, or the things that are studied in a particular subject

A syllabus is a document that contains important information about your class.
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the subjects or books to be studied in a particular course, especially a course that leads to an exam

to cram
Recent research shows that the lack of sleep caused by cramming may cause you to perform poorly.
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to try to learn a lot very quickly before an exam

to arise interest
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to provoke, to cause someone to have a particular feeling

to proofread
Set your text aside for a while (15 minutes, a day, a week) between writing and proofing.
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to find and correct mistakes in text before it is printed or put online

A: Why are you late? You were supposed to meet me at 1:30?! B: Sorry, I thought it was 2:30. I’m so scatterbrained today.
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a person who forgets things easily or does not think seriously about things

Most of the times students are not trying to be malicious and often are not aware that they are being disruptive.
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causing trouble and therefore stopping something from continuing as usual

Spirituality means something different to everyone. For some, it's about participating in organized religion: going to a church, synagogue, mosque, and so on. For others, it's more personal.
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the quality that involves deep feelings and beliefs of a religious nature, rather than the physical parts of life

The term piety usually refers to godliness or reverence for God. A person who shows great devotion to God through religious observance is said to be “pious.”
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strong belief in a religion that is shown in the way someone lives

Her life was one of hard work and devotion to her family.
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loyalty and love or care for someone or something

The first six months of marriage were sheer bliss.
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perfect happiness

A BELIEVER is “one who believes,” that is, one who has faith in something or someone.
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a person who has a religious belief or who strongly believes that something is right or good

More and more refugees are converting from Islam to Christianity as they settle in Germany, churches have said.
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to change to a new religion, belief, opinion, etc., or to make someone do this

An atheist is anyone who doesn't believe in any gods.
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someone who believes that God does not exist

‘Pagan’ originally simply meant not-Christian.
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belonging or relating to a religion that worships many gods, especially one that existed before the main world religions

In 1619 he was accused of blasphemous and indecent writings, and was banished from Paris.
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considered offensive to God or religion

Turning it into a marketing tool to be packaged and sold is a sacrilege.
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(an act of) treating something holy or important without respect

There were times, when the idea the Earth was round was believed to be heresy.
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a belief that is against the principles of a particular religion

If anyone were to transgress the rules in the code of conduct, they would immediately be expelled from the organization.
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to break a moral law or a rule of behaviour

Prophets play an important role in many religions.
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a person who is believed to have a special power that allows them to say what a God wishes to tell people, especially about things that will happen in the future

The denominations varied, dependent on his employment status.
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a religious group that has slightly different beliefs from other groups that share the same religion

He was declared a saint in the fifth century.
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someone who has died and been officially recognized and honoured by the Christian church because his or her life was a perfect example of the way Christians should live

He was martyred for his religious beliefs.
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a person who suffers very much or is killed because of their religious or political beliefs, and is often admired because of it

A definition of sin is doing what is wrong or not doing what is right according to God's rules.
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the offence of breaking, or the breaking of, a religious or moral law

foster parents
Pennsylvania has a critical need for more foster parents.
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people who act as parents for a child in place of the child's natural parents but without legally adopting the child

My niece is also my godchild.
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in the Christian religion, a child whose moral and religious development is partly the responsibility of two or more adults who promise to take this responsibility at a ceremony

Legal guardians are individuals that have legal authority to care for another person.
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a person who has the legal right and responsibility of taking care of someone who cannot take care of himself or herself, such as a child whose parents have died

He was a descendant of Thomas Webster, who settled in New Hampshire about 1636.
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a person who is related to you and who lives after you, such as your child or grandchild

His mate soon gives birth to a son, Simba, and Mufasa teaches his heirapparent how to become a noble leader.
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a person who will legally receive money, property, or a title, usually from an older member of the same family, when that person dies

The emotional bond between siblings is often complicated.
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brothers or sisters

Indistinguishable shadows moved around the room before me.
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not able to be identified as different or distinct

devote my time to
Concerning my work experience, I must admit that it is limited, since I devote my time entirely to study and improve my level of languages.
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to spend a lot of time doing something

role model
Most everyone has a role model in their life. They could be a parent, a friend, a teacher, or a sports hero.
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a person who someone admires and whose behaviour they try to copy

Most people think of giving too many material items when considering the topic of over-indulgence.
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an occasion when you allow someone or yourself to have something enjoyable, especially more than is good for them

The devastating effects of emotional deprivation on child development have been well studied among children raised in institutions.
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a situation in which you do not have things or conditions that are usually considered necessary for a pleasant life

bring up
“To bring up a child in the way he should go, travel that way yourself once in a while.”
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to take care of and educate a child

He gave his son a scolding for coming home so late.
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to speak to someone angrily because you disapprove of their behaviour

It’s very normal for children to be full of energy, loud and boisterous.
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noisy, energetic, and rough

DO YOU sometimes find it hard to be obedient?
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a person or animal who is obedient does what they are told to do

run away
Kids who threaten to run away are using it for power.
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to leave a place or person secretly and suddenly

Rattles can be made of wood, plastic or cloth.
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a baby's toy with loose bits inside which make a noise when the baby shakes it

spinning top
Spinning tops are popular all over the world.
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a toy with rounded sides, a flat top, and a vertical handle, that turns round and round when the handle is pushed and pulled up and down or twisted

Battleship is known worldwide as a pencil and paper game which dates from World War I.
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a guessing game for two players

legislative power
The legislative power is often composing in most of the countries of the world of two cameras (i.e. which is bicameral): the Chamber of Senators and Chamber of Deputies.
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the authority under the constitution to make laws and to alter or repeal them.

Which countries have the most women in parliament?
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in some countries, the group of (usually) elected politicians or other people who make the laws for their country

Since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries.
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a lot of disagreement or argument about something, usually because it affects or is important to many people

A recess is a break during the parliamentary year in which neither the House of Commons or the House of Lords meets to conduct business.
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a period of time in the year when the members of a parliament, court of law, or other government organization are not meeting

As a legislator Henry was conservative.
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a member of a group of people who together have the power to make laws

to censor
North Koreans life in the most censored country in the world.
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to remove anything offensive from books, films, etc., or to remove parts considered unsuitable from private letters, especially ones sent during war or from a prison

The legislative process starts with the introduction of a Bill.
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a formal statement of a planned new law that is discussed before being voted on

executive power
When you are the one with executive power you will have to make all of the tough decisions and hope they go right.
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authority to enforce orders and to ensure they are carried out as intended

Presently, the term "republic" commonly means a system of government which derives its power from the people.
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the group of people who officially control a country

Cabinet reshuffles happen in parliamentary systems for a variety of reasons.
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an occasion when the positions of people or things within a particular group are changed

On December 7, 2006, the George W. Bush administration's Department of Justice ordered the unprecedented midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys.
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to remove someone from their job, especially because they have done something wrong

The money you pay in taxes goes to many places.
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the money you pay to the government that is based on your income or the cost of goods or services you have bought

to evade taxes
Tax evasion, is the illegal practice of not paying taxes, by not reporting income, reporting expenses not legally allowed, or by not paying taxes owed.
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to find a way of not paying taxes

In the US during recent decades the judiciary became active in economic issues.
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the part of a country's government that is responsible for its legal system, including all the judges in the country's courts

presumption of innocence
In reality, the presumption of innocence has become problematic in its wider usage outside the courtroom.
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principle that requires the government to prove the guilt of a criminal defendant and relieves the defendant of any burden to prove his or her innocence

Тhe main culprit for global warming appears to be carbon dioxide.
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an individual who has been formally charged with a criminal offense but who has not yet been tried and convicted.

At the trial, both sides the will give their opening statements
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the hearing of statements and showing of objects, etc. in a law court to judge if a person is guilty of a crime

The legal papers that are filed in court at the beginning of a lawsuit are called "pleadings."
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a case in a court of law which concerns a dispute between two people or organizations

In the past many courthouses also included the local prison.
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a building that contains law courts

“A politician thinks of the next election. A statesman, of the next generation.”
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an important and experienced politician, especially one who is widely known and respected

I am a UK national - do I need a visa?
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someone who officially belongs to a particular country

human rights
The essential rights protected by the Human Rights Act.
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basic rights which many societies believe that all people should have

The Reign of Terror is the label given to the period during the French Revolution.
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the period of time when a king or queen rules a country

heir apparent
At present, Charles Prince of Wales is the heir apparent because he is the oldest son of the monarch.
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the person with the automatic right to legally receive all or most of the money, property, titles, etc. from another person when they die

Some people have accused city council members of trying to usurp the mayor's power.
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to seize, take over, or appropriate (land, a throne, etc) without authority

divine right
After the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the theory of the Divine Right of Kings lost almost all support in England.
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a belief that a king or queen represents, and has been given power by, God

Education was an important area for the Sultan.
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a ruler, especially in the past, of some Muslim countries

In Arabic, the term sheikh means man of old age, and it’s a title that is not easily earned.
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the chief of an Arab family, tribe, or village and the official in the Muslim religious organization

When you overthrow the government and the military dictator is tossed out of office, this is an example of when you depose the dictator.
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to remove someone important from a powerful position

he phrase coup d'état is French, literally meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state".
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a sudden illegal, often violent, taking of government power, especially by part of an army

NATO is an Alliance that consists of 29 independent member countries.
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a group of countries, political parties, or people who have agreed to work together because of shared interests or aims

slush fund
Draw what you need from the slush fund, I'll sign for it.
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an amount of money that is kept for dishonest or illegal activities in politics or business

Nazi ideology advocated excluding women from political involvement.
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a set of beliefs or principles, especially one on which a political system, party, or organization is based

Please, describe the stance the author takes in the passage
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a way of thinking about something, especially expressed in a publicly stated opinion

lodge a protest
This prompted the Foreign Ministry to lodge a protest.
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to make an official complaint about something

universal suffrage
In 1928, all women were given the vote, thus creating universal suffrage.
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everyone's the right to vote in an election.

local election
The 2017 Scottish local elections were held on Thursday 4 May.
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an election to select members for a local council

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