DNA/Protein Synthesis

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Question English
Answer English

A DNA sequence ATT CCG was mutated during replication and turned into ATT CCG A. Which mutation most likely occurred
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insertion

What are nucleotides made of?
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sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base

Shape of DNA
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double helix

Why is it important that DNA is held together by weak hydrogen bonds?
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it helps the DNA strands unzip easily to be replicated

If a DNA sample contains 30% A, then what % of G is there?
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20%

A DNA sequence, ACG, mutated into AC. Which mutation happened
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deletion

1 amino acid

The backbone of the DNA molecule is made of
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phosphate

What is the tRNA's job in protein synthesis?
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To bring the Amino acid

Genes contain the information to produce
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proteins

Which is the correct order of protein synthesis
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transcription--> translation

Which RNA makes ribosomes
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rRNA

This RNA copies the instructions on how to make proteins from the nucleus
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mRNA

the mRNA-->tRNA step is which step in protein synthesis
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translation

The DNA being coded into mRNA is
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transcription

An RNA sequence contains six nucleotides. How many amino acids does it carry?
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two

This type of mutation changes all of the amino acids in the sequence after it occurs
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frame shift

DNA stands for
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Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

4 nitrogenous bases
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A, C, T, G

Chromosomes
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where DNA is found within the nucleus

central idea of molecular biology
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DNA-->RNA-->Proteins

proteins determine
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the structure and function of your cells

take the information for making proteins for the DNA to the ribosomes

messenger (copies info) (DNA-->cytoplasm)

ribosomal (creates ribosomes)

transfer (brings amino acids to ribosomes to make proteins)O

phospate, nitrogenous base, sugar

backbone is made of
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phosphate

transcription
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DNA-->RNA step

3 steps to transcription
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initiation, elongation, termination

initiation
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DNA unwinds to be copied into mRNA

elongation
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when RNA nucleotides are added

termination
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mRNA strand complete

amino acids
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make up proteins

3 nucleotides is
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1 codon/amino acid

start codon
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AUG

stop codon
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UAG, UGA, AND UAA

translation
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RNA-->protein step

tRNA carries an
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anti-codon that matches the codon on the RNA strand

tRNA temporarily binds to mRNA while
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amino acids bind to mRNA

an alteration of the intended DNA seqence

addition/insertion
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end up with more nucleotides than you start with

end up with less nucleotides than you start with

substitution
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end up with the same number of nucleotides

most mutations are
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neutral/harmless

silent mutations
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harmless

frame shift mutations
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very bad, addition/insertion or deletion that causes amino acid sequence to be altered

point mutation
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only one point in the sequence in changes


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