Classic Japanese Grammar Patterns

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Question
Answer

~き/し
start learning
(Personal past)

(Speculative past), (Past hearsay)

~ぬ,つ
start learning
(Perfective), (Certainty), (Parallel)

(Continuative), (Perfective), (Resultative), (Parallel)

(Continuative), While

~て,して
start learning
(Linear conjunction)

~と,とも
start learning
Even if, Even though

(Negation)

Probably, To suppose, (Intention), (Urging)

Probably not, To not think (suppose), (No intention)

(Desire for hypothetical state), (Counterfactual speculation)

~まほし
start learning
(Desiderative)

~る,らる
start learning
(Passive), (Potential), (Spontaneous), (Honorific)

~す,さす,しむ
start learning
(Causative), (Honorific)


~や(は), か(は)
start learning
(Poses question)

~ぞ, なむ
start learning
(Declarative/Emphasis)

~ごとし
start learning
Like, Same as

RTK+なり
start learning
(Copula), (Location), (Naming)

Because/Since, Despite/Though, And/When, In addition

~は,ぞ,そ
start learning
(Final emphasis)

Must be, (Strong intention)

~まじ,ましじ
start learning
Definitely can't be, (No intention)

~らし, めり
start learning
To seem

SSK+なり
start learning
(Hearsay)

To suppose, Probably

IZK+こそ
start learning
(Strong emphasis)

When, Because

Although

(Hearsay past), (Direct past)

(Resultative), (Certainty), (Perfective)

MZK + なむ
start learning
I wish that... would

~がな, もがな
start learning
If only...

(Emphasis), (Self-confirmation)

Please don't...!

RTK/Nominals + か, かな
start learning
!!!

~ばかり
start learning
Around, To the extent that, Only/Nothing but

At the very least, Even

In addition, Even

Even, At least

~し, しも
start learning
Precisely, Only then, Absolutely not

~ながら
start learning
While, Though, As before, All

Indeed

~ものを, ものから, ものの, ものゆゑ,
start learning
Though/But


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