(© Pearson 2016 SOUI2) UNIT 2 ISSUES (WORDLIST)

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disease
A disease is a health condition that has a specific set of symptoms and traits — such as malaria or heart disease.
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an illness which affects a person, animal, or plant
Osteoporosis, Rheumatism, Arthritis, Diabetes, Heartburn, Cancer, Obesity, IBS, Gout. She suffers from a rare disease of the blood.

pollution
How to win the climate wars – talk about local 'pollution', not global warming.
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damage caused to air, water, soil, etc by harmful chemicals and waste
The government wants to reduce pollution in cities by 2020.

unemployment
Unemployment means a person willing to work but unable to find a qualified job.
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when someone does not have a job, or the number of people who do not have a job
Unemployment Office: Now hiring. Many workers now face unemployment.

hunger
Hunger is the sensation of needing — or wanting — to eat something. Hunger sometimes refers to an extreme lack of food, the equivalent to starvation
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lack of food, especially for a long period of time, that can cause illness or death
Thousands of people are dying from hunger every day.

street crime
Street crime is a loose term for any criminal offense in a public place.
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illegal activities which happen in a public place
The level of street crime has gone down since last year.

poverty
the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions
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when people are extremely poor
Poverty and unemployment are increasing.

domestic
of or relating to the home | of or involving the home or family |
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relating to family relationships and life at home
Police are investigating a serious case of domestic violence against a young woman

economic
Production (Supply) | Consumption (Demand) | An economic system defines how goods and services are produced, distributed and at what price.
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relating to trade, industry, and the management of money
What do you think of the government’s current economic policy?

ethical
conforming to accepted standards of social or professional behavior | adhering to ethical and moral principles
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connected with principles of what is right and wrong
It would not be ethical to lie to them.

global
When something is global, it's happening all over the world.
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affecting or including the whole world
The global economy seems to be recovering slowly but surely.

industrial
Something industrial has to do with industry or factories.
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relating to industry or the people working in it
What do you think was the most important invention of the Industrial Revolution?

rural
Rural means "relating to or characteristic of the country or the people who live there."
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relating to or happening in the country rather than in the city
The country's rural areas have been the worst affected by the disaster.

urban
Use the adjective urban to refer to cities or people who live in cities.
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in or relating to a town or city
There is still a lot of crime in the city's urban areas.

political
Things that are political have to do with government, elections, and how society is run.
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relating to the government, politics, and public affairs of a country
Education is now a major political issue.

flood
A flood is an enormous amount of water. If the street is full of water, it's flooded. Too much of anything can also be called a flood.
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a very large amount of water that covers an area that is usually dry
Their homes were washed away by floods.

volcanic eruption
the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material
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when a volcano sends out smoke, fire, and rock
Why would people choose to live where volcanic eruptions are frequent?

earthquake
shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
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a sudden shaking of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage
Earthquakes are not common in this part of the world.

drought
When there is a drought somewhere, there's not enough rainfall. In certain areas, a drought can last for weeks, months, sometimes even years!
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a long period of dry weather when there is not enough water
The biggest drought in a decade continues to affect people living in western Africa.

drug abuse
excessive use of drugs
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the practice of taking illegal drugs, especially in dangerous amounts
Drug abuse is still a big problem in the poorer areas of the city.

homelessness
the state or condition of having no home (especially the state of living in the streets)
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the problem of people having nowhere to live
The thing that shocked me the most about the country was the level of homelessness.

domestic violence
violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women
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violence in a family, especially from a husband to his wife
Domestic violence is a hidden problem.

landslide
When dirt and rock from a mountainside coming sliding down, call it a landslide.
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a sudden fall of a lot of earth or rocks down a hill, cliff, etc.
The landslide was caused by two weeks of heavy rain.

obesity
Obesity is the condition of being more overweight than is considered average or healthy.
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when someone is very fat in a way that is unhealthy
Underweight | Healthy weight | Overweight | Obese. One of the biggest health problems in the UK is obesity.

debt
the state of owing something (especially money). an obligation to pay or do something
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if you have debts, or if you are in debt, you owe money to someone
She's in a lot of debt to the bank.

project
A project is a piece of work that is planned or intended. any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
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a piece of work that is carefully planned and done over a period of time
Project management: Initiate | Plan | Execute | Validate | Evaluate. The scientists have just begun a three-year research project.

project
imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind. make or work out a plan for; devise.
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to calculate what something will be in the future, using the information you have now
The company projected an annual growth rate of 3%.

record
an extreme attainment; the best (or worst) performance ever attested (as in a sport)
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the fastest speed, longest distance, highest or lowest level etc that has ever been achieved or reached
Who holds the world record for the men's 100-metre sprint?

record
Record started off meaning "to register," with a record being something written down
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to store music, sound, television programmes etc on a disc or tape so that people can listen to them or watch them again
The band just recorded their new album.

decrease
To become smaller or fewer in size, amount, intensity, or degree.
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to become less, or to make something do this
The balloon will decrease in size when I let some of the helium out. Crime in urban areas decreased by 30% last year.

decrease
An instance or example of becoming smaller or fewer.
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the process of becoming less, or the amount by which something becomes less
The decrease in attendance was due to the stomach bug. Teachers report a decrease in verbal abuse.

appeal
an earnest request for aid, support, sympathy, or mercy.
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an urgent request for something important.
The police made an appeal for eye witnesses.

appeal
Go ahead and "appeal to a higher authority". But you know Mommy rarely overrules me.
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to make a serious public request for help, money, information etc
Famers have appealed to the government for help.

permit
To allow something to happen.
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to allow something to happen or someone to do something
The policeman is not permitting drivers to go. Dogs are only permitted if they are on a lead.

permit
an official document allowing something.
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the official piece of paper that allows it to happen or be done
Builders usually need a permit before they begin working. You need a permit to park your car here.

delay
The period or amount of time during which something is delayed.
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when you have to wait for something to happen, or the time you have to wait
The ballet performance began after a half-hour delay. There are long delays on the motorway.

delay
wait until later. act later than planned, scheduled, or required
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to stop something from happening when it should
When I am not home, my mom delays lunch until I arrive. Bad weather conditions have delayed our flight by two hours.

test
How to study for a test?
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questions or activities which measure someone's skill or knowledge
We've got a maths test tomorrow.

test
Is this the test to test us for the test to see if we are ready for the test?
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to measure someone's skill or knowledge by giving them questions or activities to do
We're being tested on grammar tomorrow.

shout
We heard a loud shout of happiness when the graduation ceremony ended.
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a loud call or cry. to say something very loudly
He gave a shout for help.

shout
to call or cry out loudly and vigorously. A man shouts through a megaphone.
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a loud call expressing anger, pain, excitement etc
I phoned the police when I heard shouting.

queue
a file or line, especially of people waiting their turn.
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a line of people or vehicles waiting for something
There was a long queue outside the cinema

queue
To form in a line while waiting (often followed by up). To arrange (data, jobs, messages, etc) into a queue.
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to wait in a line waiting for something
We had to queue for hours to get tickets to this concert!

cure
life: a sexually transmitted disease which always ends in death. There is currently no known cure. A medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieves pain.
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a medicine or treatment which makes an illness or injury better
Scientists are trying to find a cure for cancer.

cure
I have depression. | People have it worse than you. Got over it. | I'm cured. Ha ha ha ha. Provide a cure for, make healthy again.
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to make an illness or injury better
This type of cancer can be cured.

guess
3x2=5. | It's a guess. I never said it was an educated guess. | an estimate based on little or no information.
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an answer you give or a decision you make without being sure whether you are right
I didn't know the answer, but I had a guess anyway.

guess
Two truths and a lie. (Guess which is which.) | When you don't know the answer but you have to say something, you're taking a guess.
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to answer a question or to decide something without being sure whether you are right
I guessed her age correctly.

tip
a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter). Tips are very much appreciated!
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an additional amount of money you give to a person who has provided you with a service
The service at the restaurant was excellent, so I gave the waiter a big tip.

tip
give a tip or gratuity to in return for a service, beyond the compensation agreed on.
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to give an additional amount of money to a person who has provided you with a service
You should always tip people in the USA.

lie
a statement that deviates from or perverts the truth. One lie is enough to question all truths.
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something that you say to someone that you know is not true
She never told a lie in her life.

lie
Why people lie. We all lie (And it's contagious!). tell an untruth; pretend with intent to deceive
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to tell someone something that you know is not true
I would never lie to you.

hurry
Hurry! It's almost here! the act of moving hurriedly and in a careless manner.
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going somewhere or doing something quickly
Sorry, I can't stop to chat - I'm in a hurry!

hurry
Businessman in a hurry. move very fast.
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to go somewhere or do something quickly
I hate having to hurry a meal.

fine
How much is the fine? A fine is a fee you pay when you break the rules
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to make someone pay money as a punishment
He was fined for speeding.

fine
issue a ticket or a fine to as a penalty “I was fined for parking on the wrong side of the street”
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money that you have to pay as a punishment
She was ordered to pay £150 in parking fines.

monitor
A monitor is a device or a person who watches or checks to see that all is going well.
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to carefully watch or measure something to see how it changes over a period of time
Your manager will closely monitor your progress.

access
document libraries, files shares, databases, surveys, wikis and blogs.
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to find and use information, especially on a computer
You can access your voicemail remotely.

to recognize someone or something and say correctly who or what they are
She was unable to identify her attacker.

prevention
“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.” I'll have an ounce of prevention.
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when someone is stopped from doing something or when something is stopped from happening
The crime prevention in our town is quickly improving.

crime
Violent crime (inc murder) | Sex offences | knife crime | Stalking and harassment | Theft and burglaries | Grooming of children
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illegal activities in general
There was very little crime when we moved here.

authority
You have to delegate some authority.
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the power that a leader, government, etc has
Which country has authority over these islands?

store
Stored procedure or not? As a verb, store refers to the act of putting things away for later.
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to put things in a special place and keep them there
All my old clothes are stored in the loft.

keep track of
Keeping track of your finances: food, transport, travel, leisure, utilities, health.
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to know the present state or position of something, when it keeps changing
I can never keep track of how old their kids are.

data
Who owns your data? (Hint: It's not you)
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information or facts
He's collecting data for his report.

surveillance
close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)
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when someone is being watched, for example by the police or by doctors
Police have the man under surveillance.

invasion of privacy
The elements of invasion of privacy
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a situation in which someone tries to find out details about another person's private affairs in a way that is upsetting and often illegal
I think that having CCTV on our streets is a complete invasion of privacy.

unethical
It's only unethical if you get caught
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morally wrong

irresponsible
An irresponsible person is a person who makes vague promises, then breaks his word, blames it on circumstances and expects other people to forgive it.
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doing things that are not sensible, without thinking about the possible bad results
He’s got a very irresponsible attitude to his work.

outrageous
greatly exceeding bounds of reason or moderation
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very shocking or bad
The price of petrol these days is absolutely outrageous!

disturbing
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worrying or upsetting
There has been a disturbing increase in crime.

reasonable
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fair and sensible
There must be a reasonable explanation for his behaviour.

not allowed by law
It's illegal to park here.


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