6.3 TRENDSETTERS

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Question English
Answer English

Read the text about how trends spread. What is the main idea of the text?
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Main idea: that the best way to explain a trend is as something that spreads like an epidemic or virus.

Read the text again
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and find the words that complete the phrases in bold.

When trends suddenly become popular, they take (?)
suddenly become popular
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When trends suddenly become popular, they take off.
take off: Increase fast in success/popularity

When a product goes out of fashion, it has lost its (?).
it goes out of fashion
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When a product goes out of fashion, it has lost its appeal.
it has lost its appeal

One way that fashions spread is they capture the (?).
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One way that fashions spread is they capture the imagination.
they capture the imagination

When people identify with something, it strikes a (?)
people identify with something
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When people identify with something, it strikes a chord.
it strikes a chord

When a product or trend is suddenly popular, we say it become the latest (?)
suddenly popular
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When a product or trend is suddenly popular, we say it become the latest thing.
it becomes the latest thing (can also say craze)

When something is popular for just a short time, we say it's just a passing (?)
popular for just a short time
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When something is popular for just a short time, we say it's just a passing trend/fad.
it's just passing trend (can also say fad)

When there is more of something now than before, we say the number has (?)
there is more of something now than before
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When there is more of something now than before, we say the number has risen.
the number has risen

When something becomes trendy because people tell each other about it, it spreads by word of (?)
something becomes trendy because people tell each other about it
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When something becomes trendy because people tell each other about it, it spreads by word of mouth.
it spreads by word of mouth

Listen to people describing how two trends started
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and answer the questions.

What trends do they talk about?
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wearing trousers below the hip, and showing underwear; reality TV shows

How did the trends started?
A trend that started in prison a few years ago, may as well earn you a place in prison nowadays. Now isn't that ironic?
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in US prisons, because belts weren't allowed; early programmes in the 1970s and 80s.

How/Why did the trends spread?
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through rappers such as Ice T; through programmes such as Big Brother and Pop Idol.

Read the expressions below
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for describing cause and effect

cause | informal and neutral
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it all started... it originated in/from... it's because of...

cause | formal
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it has its origins/roots in... it can be traced back/attributed to... it stems from...

effect | informal and neutral
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it led to... it has caused... Because of this...

effect | formal
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it resulted in... it gave rise to... it brought about...

The Second World War gave (?) to the term "The First World War". Impossible? No. It's all because "retronym".
(rights/arise/rise)
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The Second World War gave rise to the term "The First World War". Impossible? No. It's all because "retronym".
rise

A "retronym" is a word invented for an object/concept whose original name has gone out of date.
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Retronyms are invented because new developments change the way we perceive the world.

The term "The First World War" can be traced (?) to 1939.
(up/on/back)
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The term "The First World War" can be traced back to 1939.
back

Before that date, nobody knew there would be a World War II,
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and World War I had, until then, been called "The Great War".

Another example is the guitar.
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All guitars used to be acoustic.

The invention of the electric guitar (?) to the term "acoustic guitar".
(caused/led/moved)
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The invention of the electric guitar led to the term "acoustic guitar".
led

Similarly, nobody said "black and white TV" before the invention of colour TV (?) in the need for the term.
(developed/resulted/traced)
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Similarly, nobody said "black and white TV" before the invention of colour TV resulted in the need for the term.
resulted

Many retronyms (?) from modern technology.
(affect/stem/rise)
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Many retronyms stem from modern technology.
stem

The invention of laptops brought (?) the term "desktop computer"
(with/for/about)
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The invention of laptops brought about the term "desktop computer"
about

and the proliferation of mobile phones resulted (?) the word "landline".
(on/in/to)
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and the proliferation of mobile phones resulted in the word "landline".
in

The word "retronym" is (?) to Frank Mankiewicz, an American journalist.
(attributed/given/caused)
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The word "retronym" is attributed to Frank Mankiewicz, an American journalist.
attributed

Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets.
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Change the verb tenses as necessary.

Reggae comes from Jamaica.
(have/roots)
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Reggae has its roots in Jamaica.

The Mohican haircut, in the UK, was originally from the punk era.
(have/origins)
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The Mohican haircut, in the UK, has its origins in the punk era.

Technology has led to new types of crime, such as hacking.
(give rise)
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Technology has given rise to new types of crime, such as hacking.

Some say football started in China.
(can/trace)
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Some say football can be traced back to China.

Global warming is the reason for many recent environment disasters.
(cause)
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Global warming has caused/is the cause of many recent environment disasters.
The new study predicted that heatwaves, cold snaps, bushfires, droughts, floods and windstorms would rise exponentially.

Better healthcare and diet, plus fewer babies per family, mean the population is ageing.
(because of)
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Because of better healthcare and diet, plus fewer babies per family, the population is ageing.

The rising number of female world leaders can be attributed to the women's liberation movement.
(stem)
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The rising number of female world leaders stems from the women's liberation movement.

The growth in online publishing has necessitated new laws.
(lead to)
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The growth in online publishing has lead to new laws.

It's thought that chess began in India over a thousand years ago.
(originate)
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It's thought that chess originated in India over a thousand years ago.

Medical procedures for disfigured soldiers led to the development of cosmetic surgery.
(resulted)
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Medical procedures for disfigured soldiers resulted in the development of cosmetic surgery.

Look at the expresions in the box. When do you think we usually use these expressions? What is their purpose?
So overall,... To sum up,... All in all,... Basically,... in conclusion,... So what I'm really saying is,...
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We usually use these expressions at the end of a long "turn" or the end of a setion of speech.
The purpose is to summarise what has been said.

Which expressions did the speakers in Exercise 3 A use?
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Basically, ...; So what I'm really saying is,...


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