6.1 MODAL VERBS AND RELATED PHRASES

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Question English
Answer English

Complete the table
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with the modal and semi-modal verbs underlined in sentences 1-6 below.

You mustn't cross at the red light
mustn't
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prohibition

Your mother says you can stay out late.
can
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permission

You don't have to worry about money for a nice holiday.
don't have
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lack of obligation

He has to work all hours.
has to
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obligation (strong)

He can't find himself in his profession.
can't
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lack of ability/ability

He feels he should give everyone the impression that he's successful.
should
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obligation (weak)

Look at the phrases in bold and think about their meanings.
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Which category in the table are they closest to?

They are no longer able to compete.
are able to
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are able to - ability/lack of ability

There are milestones of freedom: ... the point when you are allowed to take public transport alone...
are allowed to
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be allowed to - permission

A teenager complains because her parents make her do her homework and don't let her stay out after 10 o'clock.
make her do; let her stay
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make someone - obligation (strong); let someone do - permission

The 30-year-old suffers, because he's supposed to be earning more than his peers...
's supposed to
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be supposed to - obligation (weak)
often for something not fulfilled

... they managed to break out of the timeline that society had set for them.
managed to
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manage to - ability/lack of ability
usually when something is difficult

Listen and write the sentences you hear.
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Cross out a t or a d that isn't pronounced at the end of a word in each sentence.

We must go home now.
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mus(t)

I can't come to the party.
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can'(t)

You don't have to do it.
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don'(t)

You shouldn't listen to him.
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shouldn'(t)

We're supposed to speak English.
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suppose(d)

Are we allowed to use dictionaries?
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allowe(d)

Complete the sentences with a modal verb or related phrase in the correct form.
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In some cases there is more than one possibility.

Parents 1 be strict with babies or they 1 to control them later.
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Parents should/must be strict with babies or they won't be able to control them later.

The worst thing about school was that I 2 do what I wanted to.
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The worst thing about school was that I couldn't/wasn't able to do what I wanted to.

When I was a child, my parents often 3 me stay over at my friends' houses.
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When I was a child, my parents often let me stay over at my friends' houses.

When I was younger, I 4 help clean our flat but I never did.
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When I was younger, I was supposed to help clean our flat but I never did.

The best thing about being an adult is that no one can 5 you do something if you don't want to.
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The best thing about being an adult is that no one can make you do something if you don't want to.

And the worst thing is that you just 6 to get the flat tidy and then the family messes it up again!
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And the worst thing is that you just manage to get the flat tidy and then the family messes it up again!

When I am older I 7 afford an apartment in the city centre.
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When I am older I'll be able to afford an apartment in the city centre.

A good thing about being retired is that you 8 work anymore.
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A good thing about being retired is that you don't have to work anymore.


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