repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence.// the special effect resulting from the repetition of consonants, particularly at the beginning of words and at the beginning of stressed syllables.
* Let us go forth to lead the land we love. J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural
the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or lines, to express similarity between the structures for the sake of emphasis. (identical)
“We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, [...] we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.” ― Winston S. Churchill
A trite, over-used expression which is lifeless. // a phrase that has become stale or boring due to its overuse. This phrase may be anything – a proverb, a metaphor, a simile (a comparison with the words like or as), an idiom, or even a single word.
* Take stock of the situation* Whispers through the trees
an extended or sustained comparison making use of similes and metaphors in specially unexpected, surprising, or fantastic ways. An intellectual element is predominant, and is made the source of powerful emotion.
* It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, [...] America has given the Negro people a bad check, [...] back marked “insufficient funds.” —Martin Luther King, Jr. “I Have a Dream” speech, 1963
a remark that is intended by the speaker to be interpreted in two different ways by different hearers (literally or ironically/metaphorically).
*“New school head checks scaled back” - The first (intended) meaning is that checks for new school headteachers are to be reduced. The second (tawdry) is that the new school headteacher checks his scaled back, indicating he may be a reptile.
the removal of an unstressed syllable, consonants, or letters from a word or phrase to decrease the number of letters or syllables in order to mix words together. The missing letter is replaced by an apostrophe.
Sol thro’ white curtains shot a tim’rous ray, And op’d those eyes that must eclipse the day; Now lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake,... (Rape of Lock by Alexander Pope)
exaggeration for emphasis or for rhetorical effect.
*“One winter it was so cold that all the geese flew backward and all the fish moved south and even the snow turned blue. Late at night, it got so frigid that all spoken words froze solid afore they could be heard.”
a device of repetition commonly found in ballads. It involves the repetition of lines or stanzas with small but crucial changes made to a few words from one to the next, and has an effect of narrative progression or suspense.
‘O I'm come to seek my former vows /Ye granted me before.’ ‘O hold your tongue of your former vows, /For they will breed sad strife; /O hold your tongue of your former vows, /For I am become a wife.’ James Harris “The Demon Lover”
expression which implies the opposite of what is actually said. It may be as concentrated as a single epithet, or as extended as a kind of pervading spirit through the tone of a whole passage or a complete poem.
“Water, water, everywhere, _ And all the boards did shrink; _Water, water, everywhere, _Nor any drop to drink.” - “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, Coleridge
an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.// An apparently self-contradictory (even absurd) statement which, on closer inspection, is found to contain a truth reconciling the conflicting opposites.
* What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young. George Bernard Shaw
The repetition of sounds, meanings, and structures that balance one element with another of equal importance and similar wording and serves to order, emphasize, and point out relations. It may be inverted for stronger emphasis.
* "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty."-- John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address
the projection of human emotions and actions onto plants, animals or objects to reflect the narrator’s own emotional state. (a type of personification)
* I look at you all see the love there that’s sleeping _While my guitar gently weeps _ I look at the floor and I see it needs sweeping _Still my guitar gently weeps —The Beatles, “While My Guitar Gently Weeps”
a stylistic device in which several coordinating conjunctions are used in succession in order to achieve an artistic effect.
“And Joshua, and all of Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had.” (The Bible)
a phrase, line, or group of lines repeated at intervals throughout a poem, generally at the end of the stanza. A refrain may be an exact repetition, or it may exhibit slight variations in meaning or form.
* "O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;/Rise up–for you the flag is flung–for you the bugle trills."- Walt Whitman "Oh Captain, My Captain!"
a question that is asked not to get an answer, but instead to emphasize a point. Though no answer is necessary for rhetorical questions, they are often used to elicit thought and understanding on the part of the listener or reader.
an explicit comparison between two unlike things or actions or qualities using 'like' or 'as'. Its purpose is to make something unknown clearer or more familiar by likening it, or some significant aspect of it, to something already known.
* My love is as a fever, longing still For that which longer nurseth the disease, Shakespeare, Sonnet CXLVII
when one or more feet depart from the established pattern of the line. The kind of foot that is in the majority gives its name to the line. The purpose of substitution is to slow up the speed of the line and bring the rhythm into harmony with its meaning.
using an object or action that contains several layers of meaning, often concealed at first sight, and is representative of several other aspects, concepts or traits than those that are visible in the literal translation alone.
* “a new dawn” does not talk only about the actual beginning of a new day but also signifies a new start, a fresh chance to begin and the end of a previous tiring time
the tensest possible syntax. It delays the closure of information and the key idea until the period which ends the sentence itself. It consists of many interrupting elements, and is used for shocks and reversals.
* "In the almost incredibly brief time which it took the small but sturdy porter to roll a milk-can across the platform and bump it, with a clang, against other milk-cans [...], Ashe fell in love." -P.G. Wodehouse, Something Fresh, 1915