Grammar - De grammatica

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Extremely Simplified Grammar
A few simplified rules which shall allow you to form MORE OR LESS correct and understandable sentences.
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Extreem eenvoudige grammatica

nouns in plural
guest - guests; film - films
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noun + "-en"/"-s"
de gast - de gasten; de film - de films

diminutive form
cat - kitty
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noun + "-je"
In Dutch diminutives are quite often used in everyday language. They're all neuter nouns!
de kat - het katje

comparative form of an adjective
big - bigger
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adjective + "-er"
groot - groter

superlative form of an adjective
big - biggest
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adjective + "-st"
groot - grootst

formation of adverbs from adjectives
good - well
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adjective = adverb
In Dutch adjectives and adverbs have THE SAME form
goed - goed

negation (1)
I have no money.
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geen
negating indefinite or uncountable nouns only
Ik heb geen geld.

negation (2)
I can't come because I'm sick.
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niet
negating verbs, definite nouns etc. or a sentence as a whole
Ik kan niet komen want ik ben ziek.

basic conjugation pattern
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infinitive form for all persons in plural; for 1st person singular: infinitive minus "-en"; for 2nd and 3rd persons singular: 1st person singular form + "-t" (unless there is already "t")

polite "you"
Could you help me, please?
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u
Kunt u me even helpen?

position of a verb in a sentence
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the verb (almost) always comes SECOND

affirmative sentence in the present tense (1)
I live in Manchester.
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noun + verb + the rest
excluding sentences with inverted structure
Ik woon in Manchester.

affirmative sentence in the present tense (2)
Morgen ga ik naar de school.
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part of a sentence + verb + noun + the rest
inverted structure
Tomorrow I go to school.

negative sentence in the present tense
I don't eat meat.
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noun + verb + "geen"/"niet" + the rest
Ik eet niet vlees.

question in the present tense
Where is my room?
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(interrogative word) + verb + noun + the rest
Waar is mijn kamer?

root of a verb
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infinitive minus "-en"
almost always the same as the 1st person singular form
werken (to work) - werk

past participle
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"ge-" + root of a verb + "-d"/"-t"
used primarily in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum"); not to be confused with the English past perfect tense!
werken (to work) - gewerkt

affirmative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum") (1)
I met a few friends.
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noun + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
non-inverted structure
Ik heb enkele vrienden ontmoet.

affirmative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum") (2)
Yesterday I met a few friends.
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part of a sentence + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + noun + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
inverted structure
Gisteren heb ik enkele vrienden ontmoet.

negative sentence in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum")
I didn't meet him.
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the same structure as in the affirmative sentence + "geen" before the negated noun/"niet" before the past participle
Ik heb hem niet ontmoet.

question in the past perfect tense ("het perfectum")
Who did you meet yesterday?
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(interrogative word) + conjugated "hebben"/"zijn" + noun + the rest of the sentence + past participle of the main verb
Wie heb je gisteren ontmoet?

verb in the "imperfectum" tense
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root of the verb + "-te"/"-de" (singular) or "-ten"/"-den" (plural)
"het imprefectum" is one of Dutch past tenses
werken (to work) - werkte/werkten

sentence structure in the "imperfectum" tense
I was in Rome a month ago.
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the same as in the present tense with a verb taking on the "imperfectum" form
"het imprefectum" is one of Dutch past tenses
Ik was in Rome één maand geleden.

affirmative sentence in the future tense
I will do it later.
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noun + conjugated "zullen" + the rest of the sentence + infinitive
Ik zal het later doen.

negative sentence in the future tense
I won't do it.
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the same structure as in the affirmative sentence + "geen" before the negated noun/"niet" before the infinitive
Ik zal het niet doen.

question in the future tense
When will you do it?
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(interrogative word) + conjugated "zullen" + noun + the rest of the sentence + infinitive
Wanneer zal je het doen?

How to best learn grammar?
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How to best learn grammar? in English
Remember and use as many correct phrases and sentences as possible in your speaking. And then learn (and remember) the rules.


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