Extremely simplified grammar - Grammaire extrêmement simplifiée

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What's Extremely simplified grammar?
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A few simplified rules which shall allow you to form MORE OR LESS correct and understandable sentences.

The position of an adjective
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AFTER the noun
some notable exceptions: petit (small), jeune (young), beau (pretty, beautiful), gros (fat), bon (good), mauvais (bad)

feminine form
an intelligent friend (male) - an intellignet friend (female)
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add "-e" to the noun or adjective in question
many exceptions to this rule though but if a word concludes with "e" it is most likely feminine
un ami intelligent – une amie intelligente

general plural form
intelligent friends
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add "-s" to the noun or adjective in question
des amis inteligents

plurals of the nouns ending in -au, -eau, -eu, -oeu
a beautiful gift - beautiful gifts
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add "-x"
un beau cadeau – des beaux cadeaux

plurals of the nouns ending in -al
an international newspaper - international newspapers
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"-al" becomes "-aux"
exception: un festival – des festivals (festival - festivals)
un journal international – journaux internationaux

3 groups of verbs
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2 patterns + irregular verbs
1. verbs ending in "-er" e.g. "aller" (to go); 2. verbs ending in "-ir" e.g. "finir" (to finish); 3. irregular forms e.g. "être" (to be)

past participles of the 1st group of verbs
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change of ending: "-er" -> "-é"
to go - gone
aller - allé

past participles of the 2nd group of verbs
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change of ending: "-ir" -> "-i"
to finish - finished
finir - fini

passé composé tense for 1st and 2nd group of verbs
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conjugated form of auxiliary verb "avoir" (to have) followed by past participle
to finish - I (have) finished
finir - j'ai fini

the most common verbs which go with auxiliary "être" (to be) in passé composé
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aller – to go
entrer - to enter
partir - to leave, to set off

future tense
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conjugated form of "aller" (to go) + infinitive
to finish - I will finish
finir - je vais finir

negating a word
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"pas" + word
important - not important
important - pas important

comparative of an adjective or adverb
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"plus" + adjective/adverb
fast - faster
vite - plus vite

superlative of an adjective/adverb
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"le plus" + adjective/adverb
fast - the fastest
vite - le plus vite

add "-ment" to the feminine form of an adjective in question
happy -> happily
heureux -> heureuse (feminine form) -> heureusement

usage of indefinite articles "un", "une", "des"
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1. to introduce a new, countable noun; 2. to refer to a general class of things

usage of indefinite articles "le", "la", "les"
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1. to talk about things known from the context; 2. to talk about unique things, phenomena etc.

verb negation
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add "ne" before and "pas" after the main verb
if it's an infinitive "ne" and "pas" do not get separated by a verb but are placed one after the other before an infinitive e.g. danser -> ne pas danser
je danse – je ne danse pas (I'm dancing - I'm not dancing)

Do nouns inflect for cases in French?
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No;)

How to form a question? (1)
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main verb + subject + object/the rest
You speak French. -> Do you speak French?
Vous parlez français. –> Parlez-vous français?

How to form a question? (2)
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(interrogative word e.g. "who", "when" etc.) + "est-ce que" + subject + main verb + the rest
You speak French. -> Do you speak French?
Vous parlez français. –> Est-ce que vous parlez français?

How to form a question? (3)
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by intonation
You speak French. -> You speak French?
Vous parlez français. -> Vous parlez français?

negation in passé composé (past tense)
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subject + "ne" + conjugated auxiliary "avoir" or "être" + "pas" + past participle (participe passé)
I didn't dance.
Je n'ai pas dansé.

question in passé composé (past tense)
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(interrogative word e.g. "who", "when" etc.) + "est-ce que" + subject + conjugated auxiliary "avoir" or "être" + past participle (participe passé) + the rest
Did I dance?
Est-ce que j'ai dansé?

negation in future tense
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subject + "ne" + conjugated auxiliary "aller" + "pas" + infinitive
He will not dance.
Il ne va pas danser.

question in future tense
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(interrogative word e.g. "who", "when" etc.) + "est-ce que" + subject + conjugated auxiliary "aller" + infinitive
When will he dance?
Quand est-ce qu'il va danser?

How to best learn grammar?
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How to best learn grammar? in English
Remember and use as many correct phrases and sentences as possible in your speaking. And then learn (and remember) the rules.


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