Extremely simplified grammar - Erittäin yksinkertaistettu kielioppi

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Question Answer
to have
I have a cat. You have a dog. We have a house. They have a car.
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The subject with a -lla/-llä ending + "on" (the 3rd person singular of the verb "to be"). I have > minulla on, you have > sinulla on, she has > hänellä on etc.
Minulla on kissa. Sinulla on koira. Meillä on talo. Heillä on auto.
What else is there to learn?
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A lot! Noun cases, conjugations of verbs in other tenses, consonant gradation, relative and demonstrative pronouns, post positions etc... Study hard and you will be fine!;)
type 3 verbs
I come. You come. She/he goes. We go. You wash. They wash.
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The infinitive marker can be –la/–lä; -(s)ta/-(s)tä or –na/–nä. Remove the infinitive marker and add -e before the personal ending. The 3rd person singular gets -ee at the end!
Minä tulen. Sinä tulet. Hän menee. Me menemme. Te pesette. He pesevät.
continuous form
I am walking. He is singing.
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No continuous form. The present tense is used for present continuous.
Minä kävelen. Hän laulaa.
How many noun cases are there in Finnish?
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15. These cases are nominative, genitive, accusative, partitive, inessive, elative, illative, adessive, ablative, allative, essive, translative, instructive, abessive, and comicative. We won't go through them on this lesson:)
type 4 verbs
I wake up. She/he wakes up. We want. They want.
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The infinitive marker is -a/-ä; the -t before it changes into a/ä before personal ending. The 3rd person singular gets -aa/-ää at the end.
Minä herään. Hän herää. Me haluamme. He haluavat.
negative forms of verbs
I don't talk. You don't drink. She/he doesn't go. We don't choose. You don't eat. They don't wash.
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There is a negative word for each person, and it has the personal ending so the verb has none. The form of the verb is taken from the 1st person singular by removing the personal ending - for instance, minä puhun -> minä en puhu.
Minä en puhu. Sinä et juo. Hän ei mene. Me emme valitse. Sinä et syö. He eivät pese.
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The lesson is part of the course
"Finnish: day 2"
(total 283 flashcards)

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